Co-inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR can improve chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth in rain-fed and irrigated conditions

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Soil Biology, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on chickpea growth under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Treatments included inoculation with PGPR, co-inoculation with two strain of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SWRI3 and SWRI17), co-inoculation with SWRI3+SWRI17, co-inoculation with PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17 and application of 25 kg nitrogen ha-1 and no fertilizing as a control. Growth components analysis was estimated from growth curves fitted to the relationships between the measured variables and the temperature index measured based on growing degree days. Drought stress due to rainfed condition, caused significant reduction in crop growth parameters; however, bio-fertilizer improved growth significantly. The maximum LAI in the rainfed condition was 0.29 while co-inoculation with PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17increased it to 0.54. Although, bio-fertilizers increased the time chickpea plants needed to reach their maximum LAI. In the irrigated condition, the highest CGR, TDM and seed yieldirrigated conditionwere 0.42 g m-2 d-1, 32.34g and 2335 kg ha-1 respectively and decreased to 0.23 g m-2 d-1, 18.34g and 1438 kg ha-1 respectively in rain-fed condition that were also obtained from co-inoculation with all bio-fertilizers (PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17) in both conditions. Overall, results suggest that using bio-fertilizer helps to alleviat drought stress in rainfed condition and could be recommended in semi-arid environment to maximize chickpea yield.


عنوان مقاله [English]

اثر تلقیح باکتری Mesorhizobium ciceri و PGPR بر بهبود رشد نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) در شرایط آبیاری و دیم

نویسندگان [English]

  • وحیده خالق نژاد 1
  • فرهاد جباری 1
  • علیرضا یوسفی 1
  • احمد اصغرزاده 2
1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان
2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کرج
چکیده [English]

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تلقیح  نخود با باکتری ریزوبیوم و ریزوباکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه (PGPR) بر رشد در شرایط آبیاری و دیم آزمایشی به مرحله اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شاهد (عدم کاربرد کود زیستی و شیمیایی)، تلقیح بذر با PGPR، تلقیح بذر با دو نژاد باکتری Mesorhizobium ciceri (SWRI13 و SWRI17)، تلقیح همزمان بذر با کودهای SWRI13+SWRI17، تلقیح همزمان بذر با کودهای PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17 و مصرف 25 کیلوگرم بر هکتار نیتروژن بود. تجزیه‌وتحلیل مؤلفه‌های رشد بر اساس منحنی رشد برازش داده‌شده با روابط بین پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده تخمین زده شد و شاخص دما بر پایه درجه روز رشد (GDD) اندازه‌گیری گردید. تنش خشکی ناشی از شرایط دیم، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار پارامترهای مرتبط با رشد شد؛ درحالی‌که کودهای زیستی به‌صورت معنی‌داری رشد را بهبود بخشیدند. در شرایط دیم حداکثر میزان LAI، 29/0 بود درحالی‌که تلقیح همزمان PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17، شاخص سطح برگ را به 54/0 افزایش داد. هرچند کودهای زیستی زمان رسیدن گیاه نخود به حداکثر میزان LAI را افزایش دادند.  در شرایط آبیاری، بالاترین میزان CGR، TDM و عملکرد دانه به ترتیب 42/0گرم بر مترمربع در روز، 34/32 گرم و 2335 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بود که این پارامترها در شرایط دیم به ترتیب به 23/0 گرم بر مترمربع در روز، 34/18 گرم و 1438 کیلوگرم بر هکتار کاهش یافت که در هر دو شرایط از تلقیح همزمان با کودهای زیستی (PGPR+SWRI3+SWRI17) به‌دست‌آمده بودند. به‌طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کودهای زیستی به کاهش تنش خشکی در شرایط دیم کمک می‌کند و می‌تواند در مناطق نیمه‌خشک برای به دست آوردن بالاترین میزان عملکرد نخود توصیه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • خشکی
  • ریزوبیوم
  • عملکرد دانه
  • کود زیستی
  • وزن خشک کل
Acosta Gallegos, J. A & Shibata, J.K. (1989) .Effect of water stress on growth and yield of indeterminate dry-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Field Crop Research, 20, 81-93.
Anonymous. (2011). Accessed: October 10, 2015.
FAOSTAT. (2014). Agriculture Data. Accessed: May 12, 2015.
Gompertz, B. (1832). On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 123, 513-585.
Neumann, P. M. (1995). The role of cell wall adjustment in plant resistance to water deficits. CropScience, 35, 1258-1266.
Onyari, C. A. N., McKenzie, B. A. & Hill, G. H. (2003). The effect of irrigation and sowing date on crop yield and yield components of chickpea(Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions in keniya. Journal of applied bioscience, 34, 2156-2165.
Peix, A., Rivas-Boyero, A., Mateos, P. F., Rodriguez-Barrueco, C., MartõÂnez-Molina, E. & Velazquez, E. (2001). Growth promotion of chickpea and barley by a phosphate solubilizing strain of Mesorhizobium mediterraneum under growth chamber conditions.Soil Biology & Biochemistry,33, 103-110.
Qureshi, M. A., Shakir, M. A., Naveed, M. & Ahmad, M. J. (2009). Growth and yield response of chickpea to co-inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri and Bacillus megaterium. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19, 205-211.
Richards, F. J. (1959). A flexible growth function for empirical use. Journal of Experimental Botany, 10 , 290-300.
Verma, J. P., Yadav, J., Tiwari, K., Lavakush, N. & Singh, V. (2010). Impact of plant growth rhizobacteria on crop production. International journal of agricultural research, 5, 954-983.
Bashan, Y. & Holguinde Bashan, L. E. (2004). Azospirillum- plant relationships: physiological, molecular, agricultural and environmental advances. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 50, 521–577.
Dashti1, N., Zhang, F., Hynes, R. & Smith, D. L. (1998). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria accelerate nodulation and increase nitrogen fixation activity by field grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] under short season conditions. Plant and Soil, 200, 205–213.
Egamberdiyeva, D. & Höflich, G. (2004). Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. Journal of Arid Environments, 56, 293-301.
Elsheikh, E. A. E. & Hadi, E. A. E. l. (1999). Effect of Rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on yield and protein content of six chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars in marginal soils under irrigation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 54, 57–63.
Hunt, R. (1990). Basic Growth Analysis. Unwin-Hyman, London.
Leport, L., Turner, N. C., French, R. J., Barr, M. D., Dua, R., Davies, S. L.,  Tennant, D.& Siddique, K. H. M. (1999). Physiological responses of chickpea genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean-type environment. European Journal of Agronomy,11, 279-291.
Lucas, J. A., Probanza1, A., Ramos, B., Barriuso, J. & Gutierrez Mañero, F. J. (2004). Effects of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and Sinorhizobium fredii on biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Glycine max cv. Osumi. Plant and Soil, 267,143–153.
McMaster, G. S. & Wilhelm, W. W. (1997). Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations. Agricultural and forest meteorology, 87, 291–300.
Nanda, S. S., Swain, K. C., Panda, S. C., Mohanty, A. K. & Alim, M. A. (1995). Effect of nitrogen and bio-fertilizers in fodder maize under rain-fed upland conditions of Orissa. Current Agriculture Research, 8, 45-47.
Pardo, A., Amato, M. & Chiaranda, F. Q. (2000). Relationships between soil structure, root distribution and water uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) on plant growth and water distribution. European  Journal of  Agronomy, 13, 39-45.
Sabaghpour, H., Mahmoudi, A. A., Saeed, A., Kamel, M. & Malhotra, R. S. (2006). Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dryland condition of Iran. . Indian Journal of Crop Science, 1, 70-73.
SIGMAPLOT. [computer software]Sigmaplot for Windows, Release 11.0. (2008). Systat Software Inc.
Singh, K. B. (1997). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crop Research, 53,161–170.
Sivaramaiah, N., Malik, D. K. & Sindhu, S. S. (2007). Improvement in symbiotic efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by coinoculation of Bacillus strains with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 47, 51–56.
Soltani, A., Robertson, M. J., Mohammad-Nejad, Y. & Rahemi-Karizaki, A. (2006). Modeling chickpea growth and development: leaf production and senescence. Field Crops Research, 99, 14-23.
Tuba-Bicer, B., Narin-Kalender, A.& Sakar, D. (2004). The effect of irrigation on spring-sown Chickpea. International journal of agricultural reaserch, 3, 154-158.
Wu, S. C., Caob, Z. H., Lib, Z. G., Cheunga, K. C. & Wong, M. H. (2005). Effects of bio-fertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125, 155–166.