ارزیابی تحمل تنش خشکی در ژنوتیپ‌های جو بهاره دیم سردسیر، از نظر عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد دانه و شاخص‌های تحمل خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی وزارت جهاد کشاورزی

چکیده

تنش خشکی، یکی از عوامل محدودکننده اصلی تولید محصولات زراعی در سرتاسر جهان است. هدف از این پژوهش، ارزیابی تأثیر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد دانه و همچنین ارزیابی شاخص­های تحمل خشکی در چندین ژنوتیپ و رقم جو دو ردیفه بهاره دیم، در مناطق سرد بود. در این آزمایش، 13 ژنوتیپ و رقم جو دو ردیفه بهاره دیم سردسیر با منشأهای متفاوت و سطوح مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری کامل و آبیاری بر اساس 60 و 80 درصد تخلیه آب قابل نگهداری خاک) به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش سطح تنش خشکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کاهش یافت. بر اساس تمامی نتایج در هر دو سطح تنش، دو ژنوتیپ با منشأ کشورهای پاکستان و ایران و رقم آبیدر و رقم Dayton / Ranney (اصلاح­شده توسط ICARDA) به‌عنوان ژنوتیپ­های متحمل به خشکی شناسایی شدند. همچنین، ژنوتیپی با منشاء اتیوپی و رقم Denmark (اصلاح­شده توسط ICARDA) در آبیاری، کامل عملکرد قابل­قبولی نداشتند. ولی ژنوتیپ با منشأ اتیوپی قادر به تحمل تنش 60 درصد تخلیه آب قابل­نگهداری و رقم Denmark قادر به تحمل تنش 60 و 80 درصد تخلیه آب قابل نگهداری خاک بود. همچنین، نتایج تجزیه به مؤلفه­های هماهنگ اصلی و تجزیه خوشه­ای برای صفات عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد دانه و شاخص‌های تحمل خشکی، مطابقت کامل داشتند. در تنش خشکی بر اساس 60 و 80 درصد تخلیه آب قابل­نگهداری خاک، شاخص­های GMP، MP و STI بهترین شاخص­ها برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر از لحاظ تحمل به تش خشکی بودند. بنابراین، بعد از آزمایشات تکمیلی تحت تنش خشکی در شرایط حقیقی دیم در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک سرد، این ژنوتیپ­ها می‌توانند به برنامه­های اصلاحی ارقام جو تحت شرایط نامساعد و غیرقابل­پیش­بینی دیم در مناطق سرد خشک و نیمه­خشک معرفی شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of drought stress tolerance based on grain yield, grain yield components and drought tolerance indices in cold rainfed spring barley genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Amini 1
  • Sara Dezhsetan 2
  • Behzad Sadeghzadeh 3
1 Former M. Sc. student of plant breeding, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension (AREEO), Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought stress is one of the major limiting factors for crop production worldwide. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on grain yield, grain yield components and evaluation of drought tolerance indices in several spring two-row barley genotypes and cultivars of cold areas. The genetic materials were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The factors included thirteen rainfed spring two-row barley genotypes and cultivars from cold areas with different origins and various irrigation levels (complete irrigation and irrigation based on 60% and 80% depletion of available soil water). The results showed that with increasing the level of drought stress, grain yield and grain yield components decreased. Based on all results at both stress levels, two genotypes originated from Pakistan and Iran and Abidar cultivar and Dayton / Ranney cultivar (improved by ICARDA) were identified as drought-tolerant genotypes. Also, a genotype originated from Ethiopia and Denmark cultivar (improved by ICARDA) failed to produce an acceptable yield in normal condition irrigation but Ethiopian genotype was able to tolerate 60% depletion of available soil water stress and Denmark cultivar could tolerate 60% and 80% depletion of available soil water stress. Also, the results of principal coordinate and cluster analyses for yield, yield components traits and drought tolerance indices were in complete agreement. The best indices for recognition of the superior genotypes in terms of drought tolerance under 60% and 80% depletion of available soil water stress were GMP, MP and STI indices. Therefore, after completion tests under drought stress in real rainfed conditions in cold and drought or semi drought areas, these genotypes can be introduced in breeding programs of barley cultivars under adverse and unpredictable rainfed conditions in cold and drought or semi drought areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barley genotypes
  • drought tolerance indices
  • water stress
  • Yield components
  • yield
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