بهبود سطح تحمل شوری ژنوتیپ‌های گندم با بهره‌گیری از دای‌آلل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

شوری از مهم‌ترین عوامل محیطی است که به‌شدت از رشد گیاه ممانعت می‌کند. به‌منظور بهبود سطح تحمل شوری گیاه گندم از طریق تلاقی دای‌آلل، 6 ژنوتیپ اصلاح‌شده (آرتا، بزوستایا، کوهدشت، مغان3، اوحدی و استار) و 15 نتاج حاصل از تلاقی یک‌طرفه این ژنوتیپ‌ها (بزوستایا×کوهدشت، بزوستایا×اوحدی، بزوستایا×مغان3، بزوستایا×آرتا، بزوستایا×استار، کوهدشت×اوحدی، کوهدشت×مغان3، کوهدشت×آرتا، کوهدشت×استار، اوحدی×مغان3، اوحدی×آرتا، اوحدی×استار ، مغان3×آرتا، مغان3×استار، آرتا×استار) ، در دو سطح شوری (0 و20 دسی زیمنس بر متر) و در گلخانه، به‌صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی، در سه تکرار کاشته شدند. ارزیابی هدایت الکتریکی آب و محلول‌های ورودی و آب خروجی از گلدان، به مدت دو هفته به طول انجامید و بعدازآن صفاتی از قبیل محتوای نسبی آب برگ، تنظیم اسمزی، عملکرد بذر، وزن صد دانه، تعداد بذر در هر سنبله و فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و پراکسیداز، اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد، که با افزایش شوری، صفات مربوط به عملکرد و محتوای نسبی آب برگ گندم نان، کاهش قابل‌توجهی یافتند. در صفات مربوط به عملکرد و محتوای نسبی آب برگ، ژنوتیپ‌های آرتا و اوحدی بیش‌ترین کاهش را در شرایط تنش نسبت به شاهد نشان دادند. این در حالی است که نتاج حاصل از تلاقی این دو ژنوتیپ حساس، کاهش شدیدی را در صفات مرتبط با عملکرد داشتند. میزان فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و پراکسیداز در شرایط تنش در نتاج حاصل از تلاقی بزوستایا و کوهدشت در هر دو والدین، منجر به ایجاد تحمل نسبت به شرایط تنش گردید. نتایج نشان داد، با توجه به برتری نتاج، می‌توان از طریق تلاقی‌های هوشمند در جهت بهبود تحمل شوری گیاهان اقدام کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improving the salinity tolerance of wheat genotypes by using diallel cross

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Forogi Mogadam 1
  • Alireza Taleei 2
  • Seid Ali Peygambari 2
1 University of Tehran
2 Professor, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors that severely inhibit plant growth. To improve the salinity tolerance of wheat through diallel cross, six modified genotypes (Arta, Bezvestia, Koohdasht, Moghan3, Ohadi, and Star), 15 hybrids of crossing these genotypes (Bezvestia×Koohdasht, Bezvestia×Ohadi, Bezvestia×Moghan3, Bezvestia×Arta, Bezvestia×Star, Koohdasht×Ohadi, Koohdasht×Moghan3, Koohdasht×Arta, Koohdasht×Star, Ohadi×Moghan3, Ohadi×Arta, Ohadi×Star, Moghan3×Arta, Moghan3×Star, Arta×Star) in two levels of salinity (0. 20 ds.m-1), were sown in greenhouse as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The estimation of electrical conductivity of water and inlet solutions and water output from the pot had been lasted for two weeks, and followed by traits such as leaf relative water content, osmotic regulation, seed yield, 100 seed weight, seed number per spike, and activity of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were measured. The results of the experiment showed that with increasing salinity, the traits related to the yield and relative content of water of wheat bread leaf decreased significantly. The traits related to yield and relative content of leaf water in Arta and Ohadi genotypes showed the highest decrease in stress conditions than control, while the progenies obtained from the cross between these two sensitive genotypes showed a significant decrease in the traits related to yield. The rate of activity of a catalase-peroxidase enzyme in stress conditions in the crossroads caused by the confluence of Bezostaya and Kohdasht due to heterozygosity in both parents that resulted in resistance to stress conditions. Considering the superiority of heterozygosity through intelligent crossings, it can be taken measures to improve the salt tolerance of herbs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Catalase
  • Peroxidase
  • Osmotic regulation
  • salinity
  • yield characteristic
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