اثر تاریخ‌های کاشت پاییزه و تنش رطوبتی انتهای فصل بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد عدس (Lens culinaris Medik.) در شرایط اقلیمی سراوان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی مجتمع آموزش عالی سراوان

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت های پاییزه و تنش رطوبتی انتهای فصل بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد عدس، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار، در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی مجتمع آموزش عالی سراوان، در سال زراعی 95-94 اجرا شد. فاکتورها شامل تاریخ‌های کاشت 15 و 30 آبان و 15 آذر و تیمارهای تنش خشکی در سه سطح شاهد (آبیاری کامل)، تنش خشکی در مرحله گلدهی و تنش خشکی در مرحله غلاف‌دهی بودند. ژنوتیپ مورد استفاده، توده محلی سیستان بود.‌ نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که سطوح مختلف تاریخ کاشت و تنش خشکی، تأثیر معنی‌داری بر تعداد دانه و تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست‌توده و شاخص برداشت داشتند. اثر متقابل تاریخ کاشت و تنش خشکی در تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود. تیمار آبیاری کامل و تاریخ کاشت 15 آبان، باعث افزایش کلیه صفات شد. همچنین تنش خشکی در مرحله گلدهی به همراه تأخیر در کاشت، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار صفات مورد مطالعه شد. به علت برخورد با دماهای بالا، از تاریخ کاشت 15 آذر، هیچ عملکردی به‌دست نیامد. بیشترین همبستگی عملکرد دانه با شاخص برداشت ‌(**89/0‌r=) و عملکرد زیست‌توده (**75/0‌r=) و تعداد غلاف در بوته (**76/0‌r=) مشاهده شد. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از تاریخ کاشت زودتر (15 آبان) و جلوگیری از تنش خشکی در مراحل بحرانی گلدهی و غلاف‌دهی، عامل مهمی در افزایش عملکرد عدس در شرایط آب و هوایی سراوان می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of fall sowing dates and end of season drought stress on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in Saravan climate conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Reza Amiri 1
  • Bahareh Parsa Motlagh 2
  • Rostam Yazdani-Biouki 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Higher Educational Complex of Saravan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of sowing date and end of season drought stress on yield and yield components of lentil, a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in the Agricultural Research Station, Higher Educational Complex of Saravan during the growing season of 2015-2016. Experimental treatments were sowing date at three levels: November 5 and 20, and December 5, and drought stress at three levels: control (full irrigation), drought stress at flowering stage, and drought stress at podding stage. The cultivated genotype was the local mass of Sistan. Results showed that drought stress and sowing date levels had significant effects on seeds and pod per plant, 100- seed weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect of drought stress and sowing date was significant on all studied traits. Full irrigation and November 5 sowing date increased all the studied traits. Moreover, drought stress during the flowering stage with delay in sowing date significantly decreased all studied traits. Due to high temperature, no yield was produced on December 5 sowing date.  The most correlation was observed between seed yield and harvest index (r= 0.89**), biological yield (r= 0.75**) and number of pods per plant (r= 0.76**). It was concluded that early sowing date (November5) and preventing drought stress during the critical stages of flowering and podding was important factors in increasing the yield of lentil in Saravan weather conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 100-seed weight
  • Biological yield
  • Flowering
  • harvest index
  • Podding
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