تأثیر محلول پاشی محرک های زیستی گیاهی و روش های تغذیه تلفیقی بر شاخص باروری و عملکرد آفتابگردان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد فراهان، استاد یار گروه کشاورزی، فراهان، ایران.

2 دانشگاه پیام نور استان مرکزی، واحد اراک، گروه کشاورزی، اراک، ایران.

چکیده

آفتابگردان یکی از مهم­ترین گیاهان روغنی در جهان محسوب می­شود. به منظور بررسی تأثیر روش­های تغذیه شیمیایی، دامی و زیستی توأم با محلول پاشی محرک­های زیستی گیاهی بر عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آموزشی دانشگاه پیام نور اراک، درسال1392 انجام شد. تیمار روش­های تغذیه در چهار سطح شامل: مصرف 300 کیلوگرم کود اوره (شاهد)، 150 کیلوگرم کود اوره + 15 تن کود دامی، 15 تن کود دامی + کاشت لوبیا بالارونده جهت تثبیت نیتروژن، 150 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار + کاشت لوبیا بالارونده جهت تثبیت نیتروژن و تیمار محلول پاشی محرک­های رشد گیاهی در چهار سطح شامل:مصرف ورمی واش، مصرف ورمی واش غنی شده، مصرف بیوفرمنت و کاربرد ریزجانداران مؤثر موجود در خاک بکر مناطق جنگلی + محلول حاوی تخم بلدرچین بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح تیمار روش‌های تغذیه گیاهی بر ارتفاع ساقه، وزن خشک ساقه و برگ­ها، عملکرد دانه، شاخص باروری گیاه و تعداد دانه در متر مربع، معنی­دار بود. همچنین اثر تیمار محلول پاشی محرک­های زیستی رشد گیاهی نیز بر صفات قطر ساقه، وزن خشک ساقه و برگ­ها، عملکرد دانه، شاخص باروری گیاه، وزن هزار دانه و تعداد دانه در متر مربع معنی­دار بود. در بین سطوح تیمار روش­های تغذیه گیاهی، مصرف 300 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار با میانگین 3705 کیلوگرم و تیمار (150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره + کاشت لوبیا بالارونده) با میانگین 3031 کیلوگرم در هکتار دانه به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه را به خود اختصاص دادند. در بین سطوح تیمار،محرک­های زیستی نیز بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه با میانگین 3744 و 3031 کیلوگرم در هکتار به ترتیب از محلول پاشی با ریزجانداران مؤثر و ورمی واش غنی بدست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of foliar application of plant biostimulant and different methods of integrated nutrition on productivity index and yield of sunflower

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mirzakhani 1
  • MohammadReza Davari 2
1 Department of Agriculture, Farahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Farahan, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Arak Branch, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The sunflower is one of the most important oily plants in the world. To study different methods of chemical fertilizer, biological and manure nutrition with foliar application of plant biostimulant on grain yield in sunflower, a factorial arrangement of treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in a field of Payaam Nour Arak University in Markazi province in the year of 2013. Nutrition methods [N1= 300 Kg ha-1 Urea (Control), N2= 50% of nutrition by Urea + 50% of nutrition by FAM (15-ton ha-1), N3= 50% of nutrition by FAM + 50% of nutrition by nitrogen fixation of Phaseolus sp.), N4= 50% of nutrition by Urea + 50% of nutrition by nitrogen fixation of Phaseolus sp.) and plant bio-stimulants (B1= Foliar with wermiwash, N2= Foliar with enrich wermiwash, N3= Foliar with bio ferment, N4= Foliar with effective microorganisms + quail egg) were assigned in plots. Results indicated that the effect of different levels of nutrition methods on the characteristics such as stem height, dry weight of stem and leaves, grain yield, productivity index of plant and number of grain per m-2 were significant. The Effect of plant bio-stimulants treatment on the characteristics such as stem diameter, dry weight of stem and leaves, grain yield, productivity index of plant, 1000 grain weight and the number of grain per m-2 were also significant. The maximum and minimum of grain yield (3705 and 3133 kg ha-1) were obtained with the 300 Kg ha-1 Urea (Control) and (50% of nutrition by Urea + 50% of nutrition by nitrogen fixation of Phaseolus sp.) treatments, respectively. In the biostimulant treatment, the most and least amount of grain yield with an average of 3744 and 3031 Kg ha-1, were spray of effective microorganisms and enriched vermiwash, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Animal manure
  • bioferment
  • nitrogen
  • Vermiwash
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