مطالعه تاثیر کمپوست دامی تلفیق شده با کودهای شیمیایی بر آبشویی نیترات و عملکرد دانه تحت تناوب کلزا-سویا-گندم در خاک‌های شنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت

چکیده

برای بهبود کیفیت آب و کارایی استفاده از نیتروژن در خاک‌های شنی، نیاز به راهبردهای جدید می‌باشد. هدف از این مطالعه تعیین مقدار آبشویی نیترات تحت روش‌های متداول و تلفیقی تغذیه گیاهان کلزا و گندم بود. آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای کوددهی شامل، اوره (CF)؛ اوره + زئولیت (CF-Z)؛ اوره + کمپوست دامی (IF)؛ اوره + کمپوست دامی + زئولیت (IF-Z) و شاهد (CK)، بود. بیشترین نفوذ عمقی آب بعد از آبیاری و در ماه‌های آبان و اردیبهشت اتفاق افتاد. میانگین مقدار آبشویی سالانه نیترات برای تیمارهای کوددهی CF، CF-Z، IF، IF-Z و CK به‌ترتیب برابر 64/53، 21/41، 16/33، 59/25 و 23/9 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. بیشترین ضریب آبشویی نیترات برای تیمار CF (47 درصد) و کمترین مقدار از تیمار IF-Z (10 درصد) به‌دست آمد. مقدار و ضریب آبشویی نیترات همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری با مقدار آب ورودی به مزرعه در هر ماه داشت. تیمار کوددهی IF-Z بالاترین عملکرد دانه کلزا (5/3661 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و گندم (9/4058 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را تولید کرد. نتایج نشان داد، استفاده از کود دامی و زئولیت روشی مناسب برای کاهش کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی و بهبود پایداری در سیستم‌های کشاورزی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A study on the effects of incorporated manure compost with chemical fertilizer on nitrate leaching and grain yield under canola-soybean-wheat crop rotation in sandy soils

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamed Akbari
Ph. D. Student/Department of Agronomy
چکیده [English]

Innovative strategies are needed to improve water and nitrogen use efficiencies in sandy soils. The objectives of this study were to quantify the amount of nitrate leaching losses under conventional and integrated nutrient management of canola and wheat. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete-block design, with three replications. Fertilization treatments including: urea (CF), urea + zeolite (CF-Z), urea + composted manure (IF), urea + composted manure + zeolite (IF-Z) and control (CK). The maximum water deep percolation was occurred after irrigation in November and May. The average of annual nitrate leaching losses for CF, CF-Z, IF, IF-Z and CK were 53.64, 41.21, 33.16, 25.59 and 9.23 kg.ha-1, respectively. The maximum and minimum annual nitrate leaching factor were achieved with the CF (47%) and IF-Z (10%) treatments, respectively. Annual nitrate leaching losses and annual nitrate leaching factor showed positive and significant correlations with the amount of water inputs in the months. The IF-Z fertilizer treatment produced the highest grain yield for canola (3661.5 kg.ha-1) and wheat (4058.9 kg.ha-1). The results showed that application of manure compost and zeolite could be a useful methods for decreasing chemical fertilizer application rates and improving the sustainability of agricultural systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Combined fertilization
  • Leaching factor
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Zeolite
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