تأثیر کاربرد ورمی کمپوست و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان لرستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده تحصیلات تکمیلی، دانشکاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خرم آباد، خرم آباد، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه کاربرد کودهای آلی در جهت بهینه‌سازی مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و همچنین افزایش تولید و حفظ حاصلخیزی خاک در نظام‌های زراعی پایدار، اهمیت ویژه‌ای دارد. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت دانه‌ای سینگل‌کراس 704، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل‌ها شامل کود پایه در سه سطح (کاربرد کود شیمیایی، ورمی‌کمپوست و کاربرد توأم 50 درصد کود شیمیایی و ورمی‌کمپوست) و زمان کوددهی شامل (عدم‌مصرف، یک‌مرحله و دو مرحله ‌کود ‌سرک نیتروژن) بودند. نتایج نشان ‌داد که کود پایه و کود سرک دارای اثر معنی‌داری بر صفات بود. کاربرد کود شیمیایی و همچنین کاربرد توأم کود شیمیایی و ورمی-کمپوست، نسبت به کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست خالص برتری معنی‌داری داشت. بیشترین افزایش صفات در عامل کود سرک با افزایش ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه بود. بالاترین عملکرد دانه (8935 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و پروتئین (6/8 درصد) در عامل کاربرد توأم کود پایه به‌دست آمد. یافته‌ها نشان‌ داد که کاربرد توأم کود پایه علاوه بر افزایش عملکرد و پروتئین دانه، می‌تواند موجب بهینه‌سازی مصرف کود نیتروژن در زراعت ذرت شده و همچنین یک مرحله کوددهی سرک می‌تواند رشد و عملکرد اقتصادی این گیاه را به نحو چشمگیری بهبود بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Vermicompost and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Corn (Zea Mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Rafiee 1
  • Abdol Reza Koonani 2
1 Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREO, Khorramabad, Iran.
2 MS Graduated of Agronomy, Agricultural Department, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad Branch, Khorramabad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the use of organic fertilizers is very important to optimize the use of chemical fertilizers, as well as increasing the production and preservation of soil fertility in sustainable agricultural systems. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of vermicompost and nitrogen fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative yield of S.C 704 corn in a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors consisted of three levels of base fertilizer (application of chemical fertilizer, vermicompost and combined application of 50% chemical fertilizer and vermicompost) at sowing time, and Side dress fertilization (non-consumption, one stage and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer). The results showed that basic fertilizer and side dress fertilizer had a significant effect on traits. The application of fertilizer as well as the application of combined fertilizer and vermicompost had a significant advantage over pure vermicompost application. Most of the increase in grain yield dressing with an increase in plant height, grain yield and its components. The highest grain yield (8935 kg. ha-1) and protein (8.6%) were obtained in the application of combined basic fertilizer application. The results showed that the combined use of basic fertilizer in addition to increasing yield and protein content, can optimize the use of nitrogen fertilizer on corn as well as a one-stop side dress fertilizing can grow and economic performance of the plant to significantly improve.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Optimization
  • seed protein
  • S.C 704
  • Economic performance
  • side dress Fertilizer
Alikhani, H. & G. R. Savabeghi. (2006). Vermicomposting for sustainable agriculture. Tehran University Pub. of Jahad. (In Farsi).
Amanolahi-Baharvand, Z., Zahedi, H. & Rafiee, M. (2014). Effect of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on growth parameters of three corn cultivars. Journal of applied science and agriculture, 9(9), 22-26.
Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A. & Bierman, P. (2006). Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: effects on soil microbial and chemical properties. Bioresource Technology, 97, 831–840.
Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. & Metzger, J. D. (2004). Influence of vermicompost on field strawberries. Bioresource Technology, 93, 145-153.
Dash, M. C. & Petra, U. C. (2010). Vermicompost production and nitrogen contribution to soil by a tropical earthworm population from a grassland site in Orissa India. Ecological and Biological Soil Journal, 16, 79–83.
Eghball, B. (2002). Soil properties as influenced by phosphorus- and nitrogen-based manure and compost applications. Agronomy Journal, 94, 128–135.
Eghball, B., Ginting, D. & Gilley, J. E. (2004). Residual Effects of Manure and Compost Applications on Corn Production and Soil Properties. Agronomy Journal, 96, 442- 447.
Ezumah, H. C., Nam, N. K. & Walker, P. (2007). Maize- cowpea intercropping as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 79, 275-280.

5.     Bremner, J. M. & Mulvaney, C. S. (1982). Nitrogen-Total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 595-624.

10. Hanway, J. J. (2004). Growth Stages of Corn (Zea mays, L.). Agronomy Journal Abstract, 55 (5), 487-492.

11. Hofman G. & Cleemput. O. V. (2004). Soil and Plant Nitrogen. First version, IFA Press, Paris, France.
12. Jat, R. S. & Ahlawat, I. P. S. (2006). Direct and residual effect of vermicompost biofertilizers and phosphorus on soil nutrient dynamic and productivity of chickpea- fodder maize sequence. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 28: 41-54.
13. Jeyabal, A. & Kuppuswamy, G. (2001). Recycling of organic wastes for the production of vermicompost and its response in rice-legume cropping system and soil fertility. European Journal of Agronomy, 15(3),153–170.
14. Jokela, W. E. & Randall, G. W. (1997). Corn yield and residual soil nitrate as affected by time and rate of nitrogen application. Agronomy Journal, 81, 720- 726.
15. Kamprath, E. J., Moll, R. & Rodriguez, H. (1999). Effects of nitrogen fertilization and recurrent selection on performance of hybrid populations of corn. Agronomy Journal, 74, 955- 958.
16. Kannayan, S. (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable crop production, pp, 9-49. in: Biotechnology of biofertilizers. Ed., Kannayan, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
17. Karimi, H., Mazaheri, D., Peighambari, S. A. & Mirabzadeh Ardekani, M. (2011). Effect of organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizer consumption on grain yield and yield components of Corn Single Cross 704. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13(4), 611-626. 
18. Keskin, B., Akdeniz, H., Yimaz, I. H. & Turan, N. (2005). Yield and quality of forage corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by cultivar and nitrogen rate. Agronomy Journal, 4(2), 138-141.
19. Kumar, K. V., Sudarshan, M. R., Dangi, K. S. & Reddy, S. M. (2013). Character association and path coefficient analysis for seed yield in quality protein maize Zea mays L. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 41(2), 153-157.
20. Majidian, M. (2008). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and water stress in agro systems during different growth stages on quantitative and qualitative agronomic characteristics of corn (zea mays L.). Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Tarbiat modares university, Tehran, Iran.
21. Mamo, M., Rosen, C. J., Halbach, T. R. & Moncrief, J. F. (1998).
Corn yield and nitrogen uptake in sandy soils amended with vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost. Journal of Production Agriculture, 11, 460-475.
22. Marjavi, A. & Jahadakbar, M. R. (2002). Effect of municipal compost on chemical characteristics of soil, quality and quantity traits of sugar beet. Journal of Sugar beet, 18(1), 1-14.
23. Mohammadian, M. & Malakouti, M. J. (2002). Effect of two types of composts on soil physical and chemical properties and corn yield. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 16, 144-151.
24. Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A. & Vianello, A. (2009). Physiological effects of vermicomposting and humic substances on higher plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34, 1527–1536.
25. Rafiee, M. (2014). Corn (Proceedings). Sarva Pup. Tehran. 237pp.
26. Rigi, M. R. (2003). Study of greenhouse effect three type of vermicompost and nitrogen on yield and chemical composition of corn and rice. MSC.
27. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Shiraz University, Egypt.
28. Roy, D. K. & Singh, B. P. (2006). Effect of level and time of nitrogen application with and without vermicompost on yield, yield attributes and quality of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 51, 40-42.
29. Saha, S., Appireddy, G. K., Kundu, S. & Gupta, H. S. (2007). Comparative efficiency of three organic manures at varying rates of its application to baby corn. Agronomy and Soil Science. 53, 507-517.
30. Salwa, M. A. Q.  & Al-Shormillesy, I. (2005). Effect of splitting different nitrogen fertilizer levels on productivity of maize Zagazig. Journal of Agricultural Research, 32(1), 1-21.
31. Sharif, M., Khattak, R. A. & Sarir, M. S. (2002). Effect of different levels of lignitic coal derived humic acid on growth of maize plants. Plant Analysis, 33, 3567–3580.
32. Sharma, A. K. (2004). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agro bios, India, 351 pp.
33. Sing, R., Sharma, R. R., Kumar, S., Gupta, R. K. & Patil, R. T. (2008). Vermicompost substitution influences growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.). Bioresource Technology, 99, 8507–8511.
34. Singer, J. W., Kohler, K. A., Liebman, M., Richard, T. L., Cambardella, C. A. & Buhler, D. D. (2004). Tillage and compost affect yield of corn, soybean, and wheat and soil fertility. Agronomy Journal, 96, 531–537.
35. Singh, B. & Faroda, A. S. (2004). Physiological parameters of Brassica species as affected by irrigation and nitrogen management on aridisoils. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science, 39, 426-443.
36. Thelan, S. K., Thakral, K. K. & Nandal, J. K. (2004). Effect of Azotobacter on plant growth and seed yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science, 33, 277-288.
37. Thind, S. S., Sing, M., Sidhu, A. S. & Chbibba, I. M. (2002). Influence of continuous application of organic manures and nitrogen fertilizer on crop yield, N uptake and nutrient status under maize- wheat rotation. Journal Research of Panjal Agriculture, 39, 357-361.
38. Yaniv, Z. Shabelsky E. & Schafferman, D. (1999). Colocynt h: Potential arid land oilseed from on ancient cucurbit. ASHS press. Alexandria, VA. 257-261.
39. Zaremanesh, H., Nasiri, B. & Amiri, A. (2007). The effect of vermicompost biological fertilizer on corn yield. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(1), 154-159.