عنوان مقاله [English]
In order determine the the effect of method, rate and time of nitrogen (N) application on yield and yield components of winter safflower in Arak, this study was carried out in growing season of 2011 at Research field of Payaam Nour Arak University, Markazi province, Arak, Iran. A factorial arrangement design was used in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments were time of N application [(half at planting date and half at rosette growing stage), (half at rosette growing stage and half at stem elongation growing stage ) and (half at stem elongation and half at capitalum stage), N rates (150 and 300 kg ha-1 as urea) and method of application (mixing with soil, applied in irrigation water and foliar application) were assigned in plots. The highest (1590 kg ha-1) and lowest (1037 kg ha-1) of seed yield obtained with application of half of urea at sowing time and the other half at rossete growing stage with 300 kg ha-1urea mixing with soil), and50% of urea at sowing time and half at rossete growing stage with 150 kg ha-1 of urea mixing with irrigation water), respectively.
10. Hatfield, J.L. & Prueger, J.H. (2004). Nitrogen over-use, under-use, and efficiency. Crop Science, 26, 156-168.
11. Mirzakhani, M. (2012 a). Effects of integrated use of different combinations of fertilizers and biofertilizers on spring safflower. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Sciences, 12 (8), 1035-1041.
12. Mirzakhani, M. (2012 b). Reaction of safflower yield components to inoculation with Mycorrhiza, Azotobacter and chemical fertilizers. Journal on Plant Science Researches, 26(2), 37- 51. (In Farsi with English abstract).
13. Mohsen-nia, O. & Jalilian, J. (2012). Effect of drought stress and different sources of manure on yield and yield components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Agroecology, 4(3), 235-245. (In Farsi with English abstract).
14. Naik, R., Halepyati, A.S., Pujari, B.T. (2007). Effect of Organic Manures and Fertilizer Levels on Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(4),835-836.
15. Ojaghloo, F., Farahvash, F., Hassan-zadeh, A. & Pouryusef, M. (2007). Effect of inoculation with Azotobacter and Barvar Phosphate Biofertilizers on Yield of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Agricultural Science (Crop Ecophysiology and Weed), 1(3), 39-51. (In Farsi with English abstract).
16. Rajput, R. L. & Gautam, D.S. (1992). Relative performance of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) varieties with different levels of nitrogen under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 37, 290-292.
17. Siddiqui, M.H. & Oad, F.C. (2006). Nitrogen requirement of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for growth and yield traits. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(3), 563-565.
18. Soleimani, R. (2008). Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on grain yield and its components in spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(1), 47-59. (In Farsi with English abstract).
19. Strasil, Z. & Vorlicek, Z. (2002). The effect of nitrogen fertilization, sowing rate and site on yield and yield components of selected varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Rostlinna Vyroba, 48(7), 307-311.
20. Studdert, G. A. & Echeverria, H.E. (2000). Crop rotations and nitrogen fertilization to manage soil organic carbon dynamics. Soil Science, 64, 1496-1503.