تأثیر تنش خشکی و کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی فسفره بر ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک، عملکرد گل و اسانس گیاه دارویی بابونه (Matricaria chamomilla L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

2 عضوی هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای فسفره شیمیایی و زیستی بر ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گل و اسانس گیاه دارویی بابونه در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل انجام شد. عامل اصلی تنش خشکی شامل: آبیاری بر اساس 90، 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و عامل فرعی انواع کود فسفره شامل: شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)، 100درصد کود فسفره شیمیایی 50 درصد کود فسفره شیمیایی + کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 و کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 در نظر گرفته شدند. بر اساس نتایج ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه و طبق تحت تأثیر تنش خشکی و کود قرار گرفتند. با افزایش شدت تنش از 90 تا 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی از میزان ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه و طبق کاسته شد و کاربرد تلفیقی کودها نیز بیشترین تأثیر را بر ویژگی‌های فوق داشت. برهمکنش تنش خشکی و کود بر تعداد گل در بوته، تعداد ساقه اصلی، وزن خشک بوته، عملکرد گل و اسانس معنی‌دار شد. بیشترین تعداد گل در بوته، تعداد ساقه اصلی، وزن‌ خشک بوته، عملکرد گل و اسانس از تیمار عدم تنش با کاربرد تلفیقی کودها حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج، برای بهبود ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گل و اسانس گیاه دارویی بابونه کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای فسفره و آبیاری متداول مناسب خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought stress, chemical and biological phosphorus fertilizers on morphological traits, flower and essential oil yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsomeh Khatami 1
  • MOHAMMAD GALAVI 3
1 Agronomy,Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol
3 Faculty member at the University of Zabol
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress, chemical and biological phosphorus fertilizers on morphological traits, flower and essential oil yield of chamomile, an experiment was conducted in Zabol University Research Field, during 2016. The experiment was done as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots were drought stress including; irrigation after 90, 70 and 50 % of field capacity (FC) depletion and the sub plots were phosphorus fertilizers including; non fertilizer, 100 % chemical phosphorus, combined of 50 % of phosphate fertilizer + biofertilizers (Phosphate B-2), biological fertilizer (Phosphate B-2). The results showed that plant height, stem and head diameter were affected by drought stress and fertilizer. By increasing the stress intensity from 90 (control) to 50% of FC plant height, stem and head diameter was reduced and application of 50 % from chemical and biological fertilizers showed the most influence. Interaction between drought stress and fertilizer on number of main stem, number of flower per plant, dry weight of plant, flower and essential oil yield were significantly affected. The highest number of main stem, number of flower per plant, dry weight of plant, flower and essential oil yield was obtained from non-stress with chemical and biological phosphorus combination. Based on the results, in order to improve the morphological traits, flower and essential oil yield of chamomile the combined application of chemical and biological phosphorus fertilizers with conventional irrigation will be appropriate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical and biological phosphorus combination
  • Essential oil yield
  • Number of flower
  • Phosphate barvare-2
  • Super phosphate
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