تأثیر تاریخ کشت و تراکم بوتۀ مادری بر عملکرد و کیفیت تجاری بذر دورگ ذرت (Zea mays L.) سینگل کراس704

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت دانشگاه گیلان

2 عضو هیات علمی/ دانشگاه گیلان

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال

4 عضو هیات علمی

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر دما و رقابت ناشی از تراکم در دوره‌های حساس رشد و نمو گیاه بر ترکیب نسبی اندازه بذر انجام شد. عملکرد بذر و نسبت اندازه‌های چهارگانه اصلی بذر در پاسخ به میانگین دمای روزانه و درجه ‌روز رشد دریافتی بر پایه تابع مدل CERES، در مراحل مختلف نموی گیاه بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین دمای بالاتر از 34 باعث کاهش تعداد بذر در بوته و افزایش نسبت بذرهای گرد به پهن در توده بذری شده است. به ازای هر یک درجه سلسیوس تغییر در میانگین بیشینه‌ی دمای دوره گرده‌افشانی از 34، سهم بذرهای پهن در توده بذر هیبرید 3/0±8/3 درصد تغییر کرد. کاهش دما در دوره رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک به کمتر از 13، سبب کاهش نسبت وزنی بذرهای گرد شد. با این حال، دما تأثیر معنی‌داری بر میانگین وزن هزار دانه توده بذر نداشت. افزایش رقابت، سبب کاهش اندازه و تعداد بذرها در بوته شد. رقابت بیشتر باعث افزایش نسبت وزنی بذرهای گرد به بذرهای پهن درشت شد. بیشترین سهم بذرهای پهن و کمترین افت بذری از تراکم 60 و 70 هزار بوته در هکتار به‌دست آمد. در کل، به نظر می‌رسد که برای افزایش نسبت بذر پهن در توده بذر هیبرید 704 لازم است مزرعه با تراکمی بین 60 تا 70 هزار بوته در هکتار و در زمانی کشت شود که گرده‌افشانی لاین‌ها با دماهای بیشینه‌ی کم‌تر از 34 همزمان گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Plant Density and Temperature Variation Arising From Planting Date on corn seed sizing (Zea mays L. cv. SC 704)

نویسنده [English]

  • mohammad rahmani 1
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of competition and thermal condition in key stages of corn growth and development on relative composition of seed size and shape, parental inbred lines of single cross 704 were planted in accordance with its seed production guideline in five sowing date and five plant density. Seed yield, seed yield components and weight ratio of four major seed shape and size were analyzed in regard to mean daily temperature and daily growth degree day (based on CERES function) of different phenological stages including, seedling emergence to tassel emergence, fertilization and pollination to physiological maturity. Results showed that the average of maximum temperature higher than 34°C during fertilization lead to increase in weight ratio of Large-round seeds in favor of Large-broad ones. For each degree Celsius increase or decrease in maximum temperature during fertilization from 34°C, the proportion of broad seeds decreased or increased, respectively, about %38±0.3.When daily growth degree days during seed filling dropped lower than 13°C, the relative composition of Large-round size decreased. The higher inter plant competition changed the relative weight of Large-round seeds in favorite to Large-broad seeds, in the way that the highest proportion of broad seeds and lowest proportion of off-size seeds produced from 60000 and 70000 plant per hectare.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seed size
  • Sowing date
  • Plant density
  • pollination
  • CERES
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