صفات مهم در گزینش جمعیت‌های سورگوم جارویی برای عملکرد جارو

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی هفت توده‌ بومی سورگوم جارویی و تعیین صفات موثر در گزینش ژنوتیپ‌های برتر از نظر عملکرد جارو، آزمایشی طی دو سال‌ زراعی 1393 و 1394 در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان‌شرقی اجرا شد. تجزیه واریانس داده‌های اندازه‌گیری شده مربوط به جمعیت پایه در سال 1393 نشان داد که بین جمعیت‌های مورد مطالعه از نظر اکثر صفات مورد ارزیابی اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود دارد. در جمعیت حاصل از ژنوتیپ‌های برتر، در میانگین بسیاری از صفات نسبت به جمعیت پایه اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده گردید. بیشترین و کمترین برآورد وراثت پذیری به ترتیب با 89 و 41 درصد برای صفات قطر ساقه و تعداد برگ برآورد شد. تجزیه علّیت در مرحله پس از برداشت، نشان داد که صفات وزن تر ساقه، طول برگ پرچم و قطر پدانکل، اثرات مستقیم معنی‌داری بر عملکرد پانیکول دارند که وزن تر ساقه را می‌توان به عنوان مهم‌ترین صفت در گزینش عملکرد جارو تلقی نمود. در تجزیه علّیت برای عملکرد پانیکول در شرایط قبل از برداشت از مزرعه و بدون نیاز به اندازه‌گیری وزن ساقه و طول پانیکول و قطر پدانکول، بیشترین اثرات مستقیم به ترتیب با مقادیر 559/0، 231/0، 191/0 و 090/0 متعلق به صفات طول برگ پرچم، تعداد برگ، قطر ساقه و ارتفاع بوته بود. به نظر می‌رسد برای صرفه‌جویی در هزینه‌ها در مراحل اولیه گزینش و قبل از برداشت سورگوم جارویی از مزرعه، می‌توان از معیار طول برگ پرچم برای گزینش ژنوتیپ‌های برتر استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Important traits in broom sorghum selection for broom yield

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate seven native broom sorghum populations and determine effective traits on broom yield, an experiment was conducted in East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Tabriz, Iran, in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons based on randomized complete block design. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among population in 2014 for most traits. The resulted population from selected genotypes had superiority in the mean of many traits. High and low heritability-%89 and %41 - was observed for shoot diameter and leaf number traits, respectively. Path analysis showed shoot fresh weight, flag leaf lengths and peduncle diameter traits had positive significant direct effect on panicle weight. It seems shoot fresh weight can be considered as very important traits in broom yield selection. Path analysis for panicle yield of broom sorghum in pre harvesting from farm or before flowering condition- no need to measure shoot weight, panicle lengths and peduncle diameter- indicated the most positive direct effect belonged to flag leaf lengths, leaf number, shoot diameter and plant height traits, 0.559, 0.231, 0.191 and 0.090, respectively. Therefore, it seems in the early stages of selection and to save cost in plant breeding projects, flag leaf lengths can be considered as a practical index for selecting promising broom sorghum genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broom sorghum
  • heritability
  • Path analysis
  • Regression
Aba, D. A., Nwasike, C. C., Yeye, M. & Zaria, A. A. (2001). Studies on genetic variations in sorghum variety irradiated with cobalt-60 (CO60). Crop Science, 9: 377-384.
Abbasi, M. R. & Nakhfroush, A. R. (2007). Identification of salinity tolerance in sorghum germplasm in National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(2), 191-207. (in Farsi)
Abu-Gasim, E. H. & Kambal, A. E. (1985). Variability and interrelationship among characters in indigenous grain sorghum of the Sudan. Crop Science, 11, 308-309.
Ali, M., Jabran, K., Awan, S., Abbas, A., Zulkiffal, E. M., Acet, T., . . . Rehman, A. (2011). Morpho-physiological diversity and its implications for improving drought tolerance in grain sorghum at different growth stages. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(3), 311-320.
Arunkumar, B., Biradar, B. D. & Salimath, P. M. (2004). Genetic Variability and Character Association Studies in Rabi sorghum. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 17(3), 471-475.
Basu, A. K. (1981). Variability and heritability estimate from Inter-season Sorghum Cross. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 41, 116-117.
Bello, D., Kadams, A. M., Simon, S. Y. & Mashi, D. S. (2007). Studies on genetic variability in cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Am-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 2, 297-302.
Berenji, J., Dahlberg, J., Sikora, V. & Latkovic, D. (2011). Origin, History, Morphology, Production, Improvement, and Utilization of Broomcorn (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Serbia. Economic Botany, 65(2), 190-208.
Biswas, B.K., Hasanuzzaman, M., Eltaj, F., Alam, M. S. & Amin, M. R. (2001). Simultaneous selection for fodder and grain yield in sorghum. Journal of Biological Science, 1: 319-320.
Brown, P. J., Klein, P. E., Bortiri, E., Acharya, C. B., Rooney, W. L. & Kresovich, S. (2006). Inheritance of inflorescence architecture in sorghum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 10, 931-942.
Carter, P. R., Hicks, D. R., Kaminski, A. R., Doll, J. D., Kelling, K. A. & Worf, G. L. (2016). Broomcorn. Retrieved September 24, 2016, from https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/broomcorn.html
Chavan, S. K., Mahajan, R. C. & Fatak, S. U. (2010). Genetic variability studies in sorghum. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 23, 322-323.
Cox, T. S. & Frey, K., J. (1984). Genetic variation for grain yield and related traits in sorghum introgression populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 68, 145-153.
Dahlberg, J. & Wolfrum, E. (2011). Compositional and agronomic evaluation of sorghum biomass as a potential feedstock for renewable fuels. Journal of Bio based Materials and Bioenergy, 4, 1-7.
Doggett, H. (1988). Sorghum. London: Longman Scientific & Technical.
Emam, Y. (2003) Cereal grain crops. Shiraz University Press. 133-142. (in Farsi)
Estilai, A., Ehdaie, B., Nagavi, H., Dierig, D. A., Ray, D. T. & Thompson, A. E. (1992). Correlations and path analysis of agronomic traits in guayule. Crop Science, 32, 953-957.
Godbharle, A. R., More, A. W. & Ambekar, S. S. (2010). Genetic variability and correlation studies in elite ‘B’ and ‘R’ lines in Kharif sorghum. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1, 989-993.
Hmon, K. P. W., Shehzad, T. & Okuno, K. (2014). QTLs underlying inflorescence architecture in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as detected by association analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61, 1545-1564. doi: 10.1007/s10722-014-0129-y
Kamala, V., Bramel, P. J., Sivaramakrishnan, S., Chandra, S., Kannan, S., Harikrishna, S. & Manohar Rao, D. (2006). Genetic and phenotypic diversity in downy-mildew-resistant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) germplasms. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53, 1243-1253.
Kimber, C. T. (2000). Origins of Domesticated Sorghum and its Early Diffusion to India and China. In C. W. Smith. & R. A. Frederiksen (Eds.), Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production (pp. 3-98). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Morris, G. P., Ramu, R., Deshpande, S. P., Hash, C. T., Shah, T., Upadhyaya, H. D., . . . Kresovich, S. (2013). Population genomic and genome-wide association studies of agroclimatic traits in sorghum. Proceeding of National Academy of Sciences, 110(2), 453-458.
Navabpoor, S. & Rezai, A. (1996). Estimate of genetic parameters in grain yield in related traits in sorghum.  Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 27(2), 77- 87. (In Farsi)
Puspitasari, W., Human, S., Wirnas, D. & Trikoesoemaningtyas, T. (2012). Evaluating genetic variability of sorghum mutant lines tolerant to acid soil. Atom Indonesia, 38, 83-88.
Sabiel, S. A. I., Noureldin, I., Baloch, S. K., Baloch, S. U. & Bashir, W. (2015). Genetic variability and estimates of heritability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) genotypes grown in a semiarid zone of Sudan. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.  doi:10.1080/03650340.2015.1039522
Sami, R. A., Yeye, M. Y., Ishiyaku, M. F. & Usman, I. S. (2013). Heritability studies in some sweet sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor. L. Moench) genotypes. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 3, 49-51.
Sikora, V. (2005). Variability in germplasm of broomcorn(Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). (Ph.D. Diss.), University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
Sikora, V. & Berenji, J. (2008). Core Collection of Broomcorn(Sorghum bicolor [L.]Moench). Paper presented at the “Breeding 08” Conventional and Molecular Breeding of Field and Vegetable Crops, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad.
Sikora, V. & Berenji, J. (2010). Razvoj sortimenta sirka metlaša u Institutu za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo Novi Sad. Field and Vegetable Crops Research, 47(1), 363-369.
Sikora, V., Popovic, V., Zoric, M., Latkovic, D., Filipovic, V., Tatic, M. & Ikanovic, J. (2016). An Agro-technological characterization of south-eastern European broomcorn landraces. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, 53(3), 1-10. doi: 10.21162/PAKJAS/16.3061
Srinivas, G., Satish, K., Madhusudhana, R., Nagaraja, P. R., Murali, M. S. & Seetharama, N. (2009). Identification of quantitative trait loci for agronomically important traits and their association with genic-microsatellite markers in sorghum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 118, 1439-1454.
Teshome, A., Baum, B. R., Fahrig, L., Torrance, J. K. & Lambert, J. D. (1997). Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landrace variation and classification in North Shewa and South Welo, Ethiopia. Euphytica, 97, 255-263.
Tourchi, M. & Rezai, A. M. (1996). Correlation between trait and path analysis for grain yield in sorghum sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 28(1), 73-86. (In Farsi)
Warkard, Y. N., Potdukhe, N. R., Dethe, A. M., Kahate, P. A. & Kotgire, R. R. (2008). Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for quantitative traits in sorghum germplasm. Agricultural Science Digest, 28, 165-169.
Weibel, D. E. (1970). Broomcorn. In J. S. Wall & W. M. Ross (Eds.), Sorghum Production and Utilization. Westport: The Avi Publishing Company.
William, W. T., Boundy, C. A. P. & Millington, A. J. (1987). The effect of sowing date on the growth and yield of three sorghum cultivars. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 28, 381-387.
Witt Hmon, K. P., Shehzad, T. & Okuno, K. (2013). Variation in inflorescence architecture associated with yield components in sorghum germplasm. Plant Genetic Resources, 11: 1-8.
Wong, J. H., Lau, T., Cai, N., Singh, J., Pedersen, J. F., Vensel, W. H., . . . Buchanan, B. B. (2009). Digestibility of protein and starch from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is linked to biochemical and structural features of grain endosperm. Journal of Cereal Science, 49(1), 73-82.