پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L) به تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تهران - پردیس ابوریحان

3 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثر تنش کم آبی بر برخی از صفات فیزیولوژی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح لاتیس ساده با استفاده از 49 اکوتیپ بومی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum) در دو تکرار تحت شرایط تنش کم‌آبی و نرمال در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران اجرا گردید. صفاتی از قبیل غلظت اسیدآمینه پرولین، محتوای قندهای محلول، اسانس، کلروفیلa، کلروفیلb، کاروتنوئید، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و عملکرد دانه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش کم‌آبی بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی معنی‌دار (0.01≥p) بود. با اعمال تنش، به ترتیب غلظت کلروفیل a، b، کاروتنوئید، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و عملکرد دانه 40، 32، 52، 9 و 19 درصد کاهش یافت و بر غلظت پرولین، قندهای محلول و اسانس 30، 55‌ و 56 درصد افزوده شد. با توجه به نتایج مقایسات میانگین نیز به ترتیب اکوتیپ های کاشمر، چترود، ایوانکی، گنبد، اردکان، سیوند، قائن و بانه بیشترین مقدار کاروتنوئید، کلروفیلa، کلروفیلb، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، قندهای محلول، پرولین، درصد اسانس و عملکرد دانه را داشتند. به طور کلی گیاه دارویی زیره سبز به‌عنوان یک گیاه نیمه مقاوم به تنش کم‌آبی از سازوکارهای فیزیولوژیکی مختلفی برای مقابله با تنش استفاده می‌کند که با روش‌های به‌نژادی می‌توان در جهت تولید ارقام متحمل با عملکرد کافی از آن‌ها بهره جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Physiological responses of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) to water deficit stress

چکیده [English]

To study the effect of low water stress on some physiological characteristics, an experiment was carried out in a simple lattice design with two replications under normal and low irrigated conditions using 49 cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) endemic ecotypes collected from different parts of Iran in the crop year 2011-2012 in college of Aburaihan, University of Tehran. Physiological traits including content of proline, soluble sugars, essential oil, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and relative water content were measured beside grain yield. The results showed significant effect of drought stress on all the traits. Drought stress decreased chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid contents, grain yield and relative water content in 40, 32, 52, 19 and 9 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of proline, soluble sugars and essential oils increased 30, 55 and 56 percent, respectively. According to the results of mean comparisons, ecotypes of Kashmar, Chatrood, Ivanaki, Gonbad, Ardekan, Sivand, Qaen and Baneh had the high amount of carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, relative water content, soluble sugars, proline, essential oil content and grain yield, respectively. In general, cumin as a moderately tolerant plant to water deficit condition, exploit different physiological mechanisms to cope with stress and breeding strategies focusing on physiological aspects can be applied to improve high yield cultivars tolerant to drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cuminum cyminum
  • Drought stress
  • Essential oil
  • Physiological traits
  • proline
Abdul Wasea, A. A. & Khalid., M.E. (2011). Alleviation of drought stress of marigold (Tagetes erecta) plant by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 18, 93-98.
Akbari, SH., Kafi, M. & Rezvan Bidokhti, S.H. (2016). Effects of drought and plant density on some biochemical and physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic )Allium sativum L .(Iranian agricultural research, 14(4). (In Farsi).
Andalibi, B., Zehtab Salmasi, S., Ghassemi Gholezani, K. & Saba, J. (2010). Changes in essential oil yield and composition at different parts of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) under limited irrigation conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science (University Of Tabriz), 21, 11-22. (In Farsi).
Arnon, D.I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology,24, 1-15.
Azari Nasrabad, AS., Mousavi Nick, SM., Golavi, M., Beheshti, AS. & Sirus Mehr, AS. (2016). Effect of drought stress in different growth stages on yield and its components and biochemical characteristics of grain sorghum genotypes. Iranian agricultural research, 15(3). (In Farsi)
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P. & Teare, L.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207.
Beltrano, J. &  Ronco, M.G. (2008). Improved tolerance of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought stress and rewatering by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum: Effect on growth and cell membrane stability. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 20(1), 29-37.
Blum, A. (1996). Crop responses to drought and the interpretation of adaptation. Plant Growth Regulation, 20, 135-148.
Damayanthi, M.M.N., Mohtti, A.J. & Nissanka, S.P. (2010). Comparison of tolerant ability of mature field grown tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars exposed to a drought stress in Passara Area. Tropical Agriculture Research, 22, 66-75.
Einizade, P., Dehghani, H. & Khodadadi, M. (2016). Investigation of drought stress tolerance and adaptation in iranian endemic coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) populations. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 47(2), 317-327. (In Farsi).
Farahani, H.A., Valadabadi,  A. & Rahmani, N. (2008). Effects of  nitrogen on oil yield and itscomponent of Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) min drought stress conditions. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines, Abstracts of the World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 364p. (In Farsi).
Ghafari, M., Torchi, M., Valizadeh, M. & Shakiba, M.R. (2014). Grain Yield Stabilizing Physiological Characteristics of Sunflower under Limited Irrigation Condition. Journal of agricultural science and sustainable production, 24(4), 98-108. (In Farsi).
Gholi Nejad, R., Sirousmehr, AS. & Fakheri, B. (2014). Effects of drought and organic fertilizers on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and performance of borage (Borago officinalis L.).  Journal of Horticultural Science, 28(3), 338-346.
Heidary, N., PoorYousefi, M. & Tavakoli, A. (2014). Effects of drought stress on photosynthesis, its parameters and relative water content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 27(5), 829-839. (In Farsi).
Imam, Y. & Zavarehi, M. (2005). Drought tolerance in Higher plants (Genetically, Physiological and Molecular Biological Analysis). Academic Publishing Center of Tehran, Iran. 186 pp. (in Farsi).
Irrigoyen, J.H., Emerich, D.W. & Sanchez Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentration of proline and total soluble sugars in modulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa). plant Physiological Pantarum, 84, 55-60.
Jafarzadeh, L., Omidi, H. &  Bostani, A.S. (2014). The study of drought stress and Bio fertilizer of nitrogen on some biochemical traits of Marigold medicinal plant (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 27(2), 180-193. (In Farsi).
Jiang, Y. & Huang, N. (2001). Drought and heat sress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation to antiaxdant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41, 436-442.
Jian Yong, W., Neil, T., Ying Xia, L., Kadambot, M.H. & YouCai, Xi. (2016). Effects of drought stress on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat species differing in ploidy level. Plant function and evolutionary biology, 44(2), 219-234.
Kabiri, R., Farahbakhsh, H. & Nasibi F. (2014). Effect of drought stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants,30(4), 600-609.
Kafi, M., Borzoee, A., Salehi Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A. & Nabati, A. (2009). Physiology of Environmental Stresses in Plant. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication, Iran. 502 pp (In Farsi).
Kafi, M. & Damghani, A. (2000). Mechanism of Environmental Stress Resistance in Plants. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication, Iran. 467 pp. (In Farsi).
Karimzadeh, Kh., Sefidkon, F., Majnoon Hosseini, N. & Peighambari, AS. (2014). The effect of different levels of soil moisture, zeolite and biofertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30(1), 158-173.
Khazaei, Z. & Sayari, M. (2014). Effect of foliar application of 5- aminolevulinic acid on growth, some physiological factors and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under drought stress. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 28(5). 952-961. (In Farsi).
Khezri Afravi, M., Hosseinzade, A., Mohammadi, V.A. & Ahmadi, A. (2010). Evaluation of drought resistance in native varieties of durum wheat under water stress and normal irrigation. Journal of Science Crop Iran, 4, 741-753.
Kuznetsov, V.I. & Shevykova, N.I. (1999). Proline under stress: Biological role, metabolism, and regulation. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 46, 274-287.
Loggini, B., Scartazza, A., Brugnoli, E., & Navari Izzo, F. (1999). Antioxidative defense system pigment composition and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to Drought. Plant Physiology, 119, 1091-1100.
Mahmood, S., Iram, S. & Athar, H.R. (2003). Intra- specific various quantitative and qualitative attributes under differential salt region. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 14, 177-186.
Moghaddam, M., Alirezaei, M., Salahvarzi, Y. & Goldani, M. (2014). The effect of drought stress on some morphological and physicochemical characteristics of three cultivars of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46(3), 509-521.
Moghaddam, R., Khodarahmi, M. & Ahmadi, GH.H. (2011). Study of genetic diversity and factor analysis for grain yield and other morphological traits under drought stress condition. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 7(1), 133-147. (In Farsi).
Omidbaigi, R. (2007). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Journal of Agricultural Knowledge and sustainable production, Astan Ghods Publication, Vol. 2, 438 p. (In Farsi).
PoorYousefi, M. (2013). Effects of terminal drought stress and harvesting time on seed yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30(6), 889-897.  (In Farsi).
Rezaei Chyanh, A., Zehtab, S., Ghasemi Golezani, K. & Delazar, A. (2012). Physiological reaction fennel (Foeniculum vulgarL) to water limitation.Journal of Agricultural Ecology, 4, 347-355. (In Farsi).
Rezapor, A.R., Heidari, M., Galavi, M. & Ramrodi, M. (2011). Effect of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, grain yield components and osmotic adjustment in Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27, 384-396.
Rizopoulou, S. & Diamantoglon, S. (1991). Water stress, induced diurnal variation in leaf water relation stomatal conductance, soluble sugar, lipids and essential oil content of Origanum majorana L. Journal of Horticulture Science,  66, 119-125.
Sato, F., Yoshioka, H., Fujiwara, T., Higashio, H., Uragami, A., and Tokuda, S. 2004. Physiological responses of cabbage plug seedlings to water stress during low-temperature storage in darkness. Journal of Horticulture Science, 101, 349-357.
Sabet Teimouri, M., Kafi, M., Avarseji, Z. & Orooji, K. (2010). Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Agroecology, 2, 323-334. (In Farsi).
Sanchez, F.J., Manzanares, M., Andres, E.F., Ternorio, J.L., Ayerbe, L. & De Andres, E.F. (1998). Turgor maintenance. Osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 Pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crops Research, 59, 225-235.
Schutz, M. & Fangmeir, E. (2001). Growth and yield responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution, 114, 187-194.
Sefid kon, F. & Rahimi Bidgoli, A. (2002). Quantitative and qualitative variation assessment of Thymus kotschyanus essence in plant growth duration and using several instillation methods. JMed Aromatics Plant Research, 15, 1-22.
Setayeshmehr, Z. & Ganjali, AS. (2013). Effects of drought stress on growth and physiological characteristics of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Journal of Horticultural Science, 27(1), 27-35. (In Farsi).
Smirnoff, N. (1993). The role active oxygen in the response of plants to water tolerance, Plant Science, 6, 431- 438.
Suriyan, C. & Chalermpol, K. (2009). Proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plantlets in response to iso-osmotic salt and water deficit stress. Agricultural Sciences in China, 8, 51- 58.
Talebi, R., Ensafi, M.H., Baghbani, N., Karami, E. & Mohammadi, K.H. (2013). Physiological responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes to drought stress. Environmenatal and Experimental Biology, 11, 9-15.