تأثیر سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی و نیتروژن بر عملکرد دانه و برخی صفات زراعی دو رقم لوبیا قرمز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف کم آبیاری و نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد لوبیا قرمز، آزمایشی به صورت خرده شده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا گردید. تنش خشکی در سه سطح شامل آبیاری نرمال (60 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر)، تنش خفیف و شدید خشکی پس از مرحله 4 برگی (به ترتیب90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی بود و تیمار کودی در چهار سطح صفر(شاهد)، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و دو رقم لوبیا (رقم اختر و لاین D81083) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‏های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی به طور معنی‌داری سبب کاهش تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی، شاخص برداشت و ارتفاع بوته گردید. اعمال کود نیتروژن نیز به جز شاخص برداشت و ارتفاع، موجب افزایش مقادیر سایر صفات گردید. دو رقم لوبیا قرمز در تمام صفات با یکدیگر اختلاف معنی‌دار داشتند به طوری که لاین D81083 نسبت به رقم اختر از لحاظ عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی و سایر اجزای عملکرد برتری داشت. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش و ویژگی‏های اقلیم شهر کرج توصیه می شود میزان 100 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنی از منبع اوره در شرایط تنش خشکی ( 120 میلی متر تبخیر) ، برای کشت لوبیا بکار برده شود این مدیریت می تواند از شدت تنش خشکی و صدمات وارده بکاهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of drought stress and nitrogen on grain yield and some agronomic traits of red kidney bean cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khyrolla Bayati 1
  • Naser Majnoon Hosseini 2
  • Hosseini Moghadam 1
  • Reza Basiri 1
1 University of Tehran, College of Agriculture & Natural Sciences
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of different irrigation levels and nitrogen on yield and yield components of red kidney beans, a factorial split plot experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran (Karaj) in 2015. Three irrigation levels comprised of 60 (normal), 90 (mild water stress) and 120 mm (sever) cumulative evaporation from open pan class A assigned as main plots, four fertilizer treatments of zero (control), 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 and bean cultivars (Akhtar & D81083) compound as sub plots.The results showed that water stress significantly reduces the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of branches and plant height. Applied nitrogen significantly intensified all traits, except pod weight, plant height and harvest index. Two kidney beans significantly differed in all traits; however the line D81083 in terms of grain yield and other components performed better than Akhtar. D81083 line at normal irrigation with 150 kg N and the Akhtar line at water stress condition with no N fertilizer application, respectively had the highest and the lowest harvest index and seed weight. The interaction of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield showed that the treatments of 150 kg N in normal irrigation had the highest and the control (not fertilizer) under severe water stress had the lowest yield however, the difference between 100 and 150 kg N ha- was not significant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water stress
  • yield & yield components
  • nitrogen fertilizer
  • red kidney bean
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