ارزیابی تأثیر رطوبت خاک بر زمستان‌گذرانی علف هرز پیزور (Bolboschoenus maritimus) و پیش‌بینی دماهای مهم آن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی ارشد دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه تهران

3 عضو هیئت علمی موسسه تحقیقات برنج

چکیده

پیزور از جگن‌های چند‌ساله و پس از سوروف مهمترین علف‌هرز شالیزار است. دو آزمایش گلدانی و آزمایشگاهی به منظور مطالعه برخی ویژگی‌های اکوفیزیولوژیکی این علف‌هرز جهت ارائه راهکاری برای مدیریت آن اجرا شد. در تحقیق نخست تأثیر سطوح رطوبت خاک (6، 12، 24، 34 درصد رطوبت وزنی و شاهد غرقاب دائم) بر زمستان‌گذرانی غده‌های پیزور و رشد آنها در سال بعد و در آزمایش دوم دمای کاردینال جوانه‌زنی آن بررسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که زنده‌مانی و زمستان‌گذرانی غده‌های پیزور در سطوح رطوبتی 6، 12 و 24 درصد خاک به‌ترتیب 10، 30 و 82 درصد بود، امّا در رطوبت‌های بالاتر به شدت کاهش یافت. بعلاوه صفات تعداد غده تولیدی، وزن تر غده و نیز طول و وزن تر ریزوم پیزور در رطوبت 6 درصد خاک به ترتیب 100، 58، 70 و 92 درصد نسبت به سطح رطوبتی 24 درصد (ظرفیت زراعی) کمتر بود. حداکثر جوانه‌زنی در دماهای 25 تا 30 درجه سانتی‌گراد و کمترین جوانه‌زنی در دمای 40 درجه سانتی‌گراد و بیشترین سرعت جوانه‌زنی نیز در دمای 30 درجه سانتی‌گراد بود. دماهای کمینه، بهینه و بیشینه سبزشدن غده‌های پیزور به‌‌ترتیب 5، 25 و 40 درجه سانتی‌گراد بود. با‌توجه به زنده‌مانی اندک و کاهش شدید شاخص‌های رشد رویشی پیزور در رطوبت‌های پایین، زه‌کشی و شخم اراضی شالیزاری پس از برداشت برنج به‌عنوان راهکاری جهت کاهش جمعیت زمستان‌گذران این علف‌هرز و مدیریت زراعی آن پیشنهاد می‌شود

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of soil moisture on overwintering of alkali bulrush (Bolboschoenus maritimus) rhizome and prediction of cardinal temperatures required for tubers sprouting

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Alizadeh 2
  • Bijan Yaghobi 3
2 University of Tehran
3 b
چکیده [English]

Bulrush is one the most important weed of paddy rice. Pot and lab experiments were carried out in order to study some of its ecophysiological characteristics. In the first study, the effects of soil moisture (6, 12, 24, 34 percent based on soil dry weight, and permanent flood as control) on overwintering of bulrush tubers and its growth in following year was determined. In the second experiment, the cardinal temperatures required for tubers germination was investigated. The results showed that survival and overwintering of bulrush tubers in 6, 12 and 24 percent moisture was 10, 30 and 82 percent respectively, and fell sharply in higher humidity. In addition, the number and fresh weight of tubers and also length and fresh weight of bulrush rhizomes in 6% moisture was 100, 58, 70 and 92 percent lower compared to field capacity treatment (24 percent moisture level). The maximum germination occurred at 25 to 30 degrees Celsius and the minimum germination at 40°C and the highest germination rate in 30°C. By considering the low survival rate and a considerable reduction in vegetative organs of bulrush in low soil moisture, drainage and tillage of paddy fields after the rice harvesting is a means of reducing overwintering populations and management of this weed. Minimum temperature required for germination of bulrush, compared with rice growing base temperature (12°C), and the growth of bulrush before transplanting rice, indicates well adoptability of bulrush to paddy rice ecosystems and the need to provide appropriate integrated solution for its management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paddy field
  • alkali bulrush
  • Drainage
  • Humidity
  • cardinal temperature
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