اثر پیش‏کاشت گیاه پوششی و کاربرد نیتروژن بر برخی صفات کیفی و عملکرد ارقام ذرت علوفه‏ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدیر شرکت خصوصی

2 دانشجو دکتری-پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

3 3. استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج.

4 4. استاد و عضو هیئت علمی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج.

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی اثر پیش‏کاشت گیاه پوششی و کاربرد نیتروژن بر برخی صفات کیفی و عملکرد ارقام مختلف ذرت علوفه‏ای آزمایشی در دانشگاه تهران به صورت کرت‏های دو بار خرد‏شده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل پیش‏کاشت ماشک به عنوان کرت اصلی در سه سطح (آیش (نکاشت)، کشت ماشک به‏عنوان علوفه و کشت ماشک به‏عنوان کود سبز)، کود نیتروژن به عنوان کرت فرعی در سه سطح (صفر، 50 و 100 درصد مقدار توصیه‏شده) و رقم ذرت علوفه‏ای به عنوان کرت فرعی‏فرعی در دو سطح (رقم سایمون و ZP677) بودند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل درصد قابلیت هضم ماده خشک (DMD)، کربوهیدرات‏های محلول در آب (WSC)، پروتئین خام (CP)، فیبر خام (CF)، خاکستر، NDF، ADF، عملکرد پروتئین (Kg/ha) و عملکرد ماده خشک (Kg/ha) ذرت علوفه‎ای بودند. نتایج نشان داد که نکاشت ماشک (12/32) نسبت به تیمارهای کود سبز (68/28) و علوفه (08/31) تأثیر قابل‏توجهی بر درصد WSC داشت. بیش‏ترین و کم‏ترین درصد ADF به ترتیب در کود سبز (87/22) و آیش (99/15) مشاهده شد. کود سبز و آیش به ترتیب بیشترین (87/35) و کم‏ترین (45/31) تأثیر را روی درصد NDF داشتند. درصد NDF در 50% مقدار توصیه‏شده کود اوره‏ بیشترین (41/35) و در صفر درصد اوره کم‏ترین (72/31) میزان داشت. بیش‏ترین (09/35) و کم‏ترین (17/32) درصد CF به ترتیب در اثر متقابل رقم ZP677 × پیش‏کشت ماشک به‏عنوان علوفه و اثر متقابل رقم سایمون × آیش حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of cover crop pre-planting and nitrogen application on some qualitative traits and yield of forage corn varieties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Bayat 2
  • hosyin moghsdsm 3
2 Student
3 tehran university
چکیده [English]

evaluate the effect of pre-planting cover crop and nitrogen application on some qualitative traits and yield of two forage maize varieties, an experiment was conducted at Tehran University to form of split plot in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Assessed factors included pre-planting vetch as main plots in three levels (fallow (or not Planting), planting of vetch as fodder and planting of vetch as green manure), nitrogen fertilizers as sub plots at three levels (zero, 50 and 100 percent of the recommended amount) and maize varieties as sub-sub plots at two levels (Simon and ZP677 var.), respectively. The studied traits consisted of percent of dry matter digestibility (DMD), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ash, NDF, ADF, protein yield (Kg/ha) and dry matter yield (Kg/ha) of forage maize. The results showed that the fallow treatment had significant effect on WSC% in comparison with green manure and fodder maize. The highest and lowest percent of ADF were observed in green manure and fallow respectively. Green manure and fallow had the highest and the lowest impact on NDF percent, respectively. NDF percent in 50% of recommended urea was the highest and zero percent of urea was the lowest. The highest and lowest percentage of CF was obtained in interaction ZP677 cv × pre-plant vetch as fodder and fallow × Simon cv respectively. In relation to the protein yield, interaction green manure × %100 urea and fallow × %0 urea had the highest and lowest amount respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Double cropping
  • Green manure
  • forage quality
  • Chemical Fertilizer
Agha-alikhani, M., Eshagh-Ahmad M. & Modarres-Sanavi, A. D. (2008). Effect of planting density and nitrogen rates on yield and forage quality of pearl millet. Research and Construction, 77, 20-27. (In Farsi)
Ahmadi, N., Zarghami, R., Ghoshchi, F. & Zand, B. (2005). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on yield, protein and crude fiber percentage of silage corn in Varamin region. The Abstract of the 8th agronomy and plant breeding Science Congress of Iran. 330 P.
Albayrak, S., M. Turk, O. Yuksel, & Yilmaz, M. (2011). Forage yield and the quality of perennial legume-grass mixtures under rainfed conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 39(1), 114-118.
Almodares, M., Jafarinia, M. & Hadi, M. R. (2009). The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Chemical Compositions in Corn and Sweet Sorghum. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environment Science, 6(4), 441-446.
Arzani, H. (2009). Quality forage and daily requirement of grazing animal in pasture. Tehran University Press, 354 P. (In Farsi)
Ayub, M, Nadeem, M. A., Sharar, M. S. & Mahmood, N. (2002). Response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder to different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 1(4), 352-354.
Bingol, N. T., Karsli, M. A., Yilmaz, I. H. & Bolat, D. (2007). The effects of planting time and combination on the nutrient composition and digestible dry matter yield of four mixtures of vetch varieties intercropped with barley. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 31, 297-302.
Blackshaw, R. E., Moyer, R. C. & Boswall, A. L. (2001). Suitability of Anderson sweet clover as a fallow replacement in semi-arid cropping system. Agronomy Journal, 93, 863-868.
Brawand, H., & Hossner, L. R. (1976). Nutrient Content of Sorghum Leaves and Grain as Influenced by Long-Term Crop Rotation and Fertilizer Treatment 1. Agronomy Journal, 68(2), 277-280.
Budakli-Carpici, E., Celik, N. & Bayram, G. (2010). Yield and quality of forage maize as influenced by plant density and nitrogen rate. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 15(2), 128-132.
Cherr, C. M., Scholberg, J. M. S. & McSorley, R. (2006). Green manure approaches to crop production: A Synthesis. Agronomy Journal, 98, 302-319.
Clark A. J., Decker A. M. & Meisinger, J. J. (1994). Seeding rate and kill date effects on hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures for corn production. Agronomy Journal, 86, 1065-1070.
Coleman, S. E. & Moore, J. E. (2003). Feed quality and animal performance. Field Crops Research, 84(1-2), 17-29.
Contreras-Govea, F. E., Muck, R. E., Armstrong, K. L. & Albrecht, K. A. (2009). Nutritive value of corn silage in mixture with climbing beans. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 150, 1-8.
Decker, A. M., Clark, A. J. Meisinger, J. J. Mulford, F. R. & McIntosh, M. S. (1994). Legume cover crop contributions to no-tillage corn production systems. Agronomy journal, 86, 126-135.
Dinnes, D. L., Karlen, D. L., Jaynes, D. B., Kaspar, T. C., Hatfield, J. L., Colvin, T. S. & Cambardella, C. A. (2002). Nitrogen management strategies to reduce nitrate leaching in tile-drained Midwestern soils. Agronomy Journal, 94, 153-171.
Ditsch, D. D. & Bitzer, M. J. (2005). Managing small grains for livestock forage. Agronomy Department of Kent University. Retrieved December, 2014, from http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr160/agr160.htm
Dolatmande-shahri, N. & Tahmasbi, I. (2016). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on yield and forage quality of maize (MV500 cv) in second cultivation. Better farming, 18(1), 173-182. (In Farsi)
Evans, J., Scott, G., Lemerle, D., Kaiser, A., Orchard, B., Murray, G. M. & Amestrong, E. L. (2003). Impact of legume break crops on yield and grain quality of wheat and relationship with soil mineral N and crop N content. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54, 777-788.
Fateh, E., Chaychi, M. R., Sharifi-Ashurabad, E., Mazaheri, D. & Ashraf-Jafari, A. (2010). Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Some Silage Chemical Properties of Globe Artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Plant Production, 33(1), 15-31.
Fathi, G., Mojedam, M., Siadat, S. A., & Mohammadi, G. N. (2002). Effect of different levels of nitrogen and cutting time on grain and forage yield of Karoon Cultiver of barley. JWSS-Isfahan University of Technology, 5(4), 97-106.
Galani, N. N., Lomte, M. H. & Choudhari, S. D. (1991). Juice yield and brix as affected by genotype, plant density and N levels in high-energy sorghum. Bharatiy Sugar, 16, 23-24.
Gardner, F. P. & Wiggans, S. C. (1959). Effect of clipping and nitrogen fertilization on forage and grain yields of spring oats. Agronomy Journal, 51, 566-568.
Ghodsi, M. (1997). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on agronomic characteristics, green fodder and grain yield of barley and triticale cultivars. The 4th agronomy and plants breeding Science Congress of Iran, Isfahan University of Technology.
Greene, W. L., Johnson, A. B., Paterson, J. & Ansotegui, R. (1998). Role of trace minerals in cow-calf cycle examined. In: Feedstuffs Newspaper, 70, 12-27.
Hansen, E. M., & Djurhuus, J. (1997). Yield and N uptake as affected by soil tillage and catch crop. Soil and Tillage Research, 42(4), 241-252.
Harms, C. L., & Tucker, B. B. (1973). Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization and Other Factors on Yield, Prussic Acid, Nitrate, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations of Sudangarss Cultivars 1. Agronomy Journal, 65(1), 21-26.
Henriksen, T. M. & Breland, T. A. (1999). Nitrogen availability effects on carbon mineralization, fungal and bacterial growth, and enzyme activities during decomposition of wheat straw in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31(8), 1121-1134.
Jafari, A. A., Connolly, V., Frolich, A. & Walsh, E. K. (2003). A note on estimation of quality in perennial ryegrass by near infrared spectroscopy. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 42, 293-299.
Jat, R. S. & Ahlawat, I. P. S. (2006). Direct and residual effect of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and phosphorus on soil nutrient dynamics and productivity of chickpea-fodder maize sequence. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 28(1), 41-54.
Javadi, H., Saberi, M. H., Azari-Nasrabad, A. & Khosravi, S. (2010). Effect of amounts and methods of nitrogen application on yield and quality of forage sorghum (Speedfeed cv). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8(3), 384-392. (In Farsi)
Karimi, H. (1991). Range Management. Tehran University Publication, 372 P. (In Farsi)
Kephart, K. D., Buxton, D.R. & Hill, R.R. (1989). Morphology of alfalfa divergently selected for herbage lignin concentration. Crop Science, 29, 293-296.
Keskin, B., Akdeniz, H., Yilmaz, I. H. & Turan, N. (2005). Yield and Quality of Forage Corn (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Cultivar and Nitrogen Rate. Journal of Agronomy, 4(2), 138-141.
Khajehpour, M. R. (1995). Agronomy Principle. Esfahan University Publication, P. 386. (In Farsi)
Kiani, S., Siadat, S. A. Moradi-Telavat, M. R., Abdali-Mashhadi, A. R. & Sari, M. (2014). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on forage yield and quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) intercropping. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 16(2), 77-90. (In Farsi)
Koochaki, A. R. (1994). Agronomy in dry areas. Mashhad University Press, 200 p.
Kuo, S. & Jellum, E. J. (2002). Influence of winter cover crop and residue management on soil nitrogen availability and corn yield. Agronomy Journal, 94, 501-508.
Lauriault, L. M., & Kirksey, R. E. (2004). Yield and nutritive value of irrigated winter cereal forage grass–legume intercrops in the Southern High Plains, USA. Agronomy Journal, 96(2), 352-358.
Lawlor, D. W., Lemaire, G. & Gastal, F. (2001). Nitrogen, plant growth and crop yield. Lea PJ and Morot Guardu GF (Eds), Berlin: SpringerVerlag. Pp. 343-367.
Majidian, M. (2008). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and water stress in agro systems during different growth stages on quantitative and qualitative agronomic characteristics of corn (Zea mays L.). PhD. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran. (In Farsi)
Martin, G. W., & Touchton, J. T. (1983). Legumes as a cover crop and source of nitrogen. Journal of soil and water conservation, 38(3), 214-216.
Minson, D. J. (1990). Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press, 734 p.
Minsoon, R. C. & Cooper, M. (1998). Sorghum hybrid differences in grain yield and nitrogen concentration under low soil nitrogen availability. II. Hybrids with contrasting phenology. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 49, 1277-86.
Mirlohi, A. F., Bozorgvar, N. & Basiri, M. (2000). Effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and silage quality in three hybrid of forage sorghum. Science and Technology of Agriculture & Natural Resources, 4(2), 105-115.
Modirshanechi, M. (1992). Forage Production and Management. IRAN, Mashhad, 589 P. (In Farsi)
Muller, T., Thorup-Kristensen, K., Magid, J., Jensen, L. S. & Soren, H. (2006). Catch crops affect nitrogen dynamics in organic systems without livestock Husbandry-Simulations with the DAISY model. Ecological Modelling, 191, 538-544.
Mullins, G. L, Alley, S. E. & Reeves, D. W. (1998). Tropical Maize Response to Nitrogen and Starter Fertilizer Under Strip and Conventional Tillage Systems in Southern Alabama. Soil and Tillage Research. 45, 1-15.
Ngouajio, M., & Mc Giffen, M. E. (2002). Going organic changes weed population dynamic. Hort Technology, 12, 155-159.
Orhan, E., Esitken, A., Ercisli, S., Turan, M., & Sahin, F. (2006). Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrient contents in organically growing raspberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 111(1), 38-43.
Patel, P. C., & Patel, J. C. (1993). Effect of nitrogen levels and time of application with cutting systems on yield and protein content of oats forage (Avena sativa L.). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal.
Pramanik, M. Y. A., Sarkar, M. A. R., Islam, M. A. & Samad, M. A. (2004). Effect of green manures and different levels of nitrogen on the yield and yield components of transplant Aman rice. Agronomy Journal, 3(2), 122-125.
Rinbott, T. M., Conley, P. S., & Belevins, D. G. (2004). No-tillage corn and grain sorghum response to cover crop and nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 96, 1158-1163.
Romroudi-khastehdel, M. (2007). Impact of farming techniques (cover crops, tillage systems and different levels of nitrogen) on yield and quality of forage sorghum. PhD thesis of Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Tehran University. 160 p.
Russell, W. & Hallauure, A. R. (1988). Corn in hybridization of crop plants. Fehr WR and Hadley HH (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison. WI.
Saeid-Nejad, A. H., Rezvani-Moghaddam, P. Khazaeii, H. R. & Nasiri-Mahallati, M. (2012). Effect of organic fertilizers, bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers on the dry matter digestibility and crude protein of forage sorghum (Speedfeed cv). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 9(4), 623-630
Sepahvand, A. & Ashraf-jafari, A. (2014). Study on yield and forage quality in 14 landraces bitter vetch (Vicia ervillia) in irrigated and rainfed conditions in Khorramabad. Journal of Agronomy, 102, 20-30. (In Farsi)
Shipley, P. R., J. J. Meisinger. & A. M. Decker. (1992). Conserving residual corn fertilizer nitrogen with winter cover crops. Agronomy Journal, 84(5), 869-876.
Singh, M. K., Pal, S. K., Thakur, R., & Verma, U. N. (1997). Energy input-output relationship of cropping systems. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(6), 262-264.
Smith, K. F., Reed, K. F. M. & Foot, J. Z. (1997). An assessment of the relative importance of specific traits for the genetic improvement of nutritive value in dairy pasture. Grass and Forage Science, 52(2), 167-175.
Sood, B., Rohitashav, R. & Sharma, V. K. (1994). Effects of N on growth and fodder yield of barley variety under rainfed conditions. Field Crop Abstracts, 48(6), 37-46.
Sumner, D. C., Martin, W. E. & Etchegary, H. S. (1965). Dry matter and protein yield and nitrate content of piper sudangrass in response to nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 57, 351-354.
Tariq, M. (1998). Fodder yield and quality of two maize varieties at different nitrogen levels. Agronomy Department of Agricultural University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. M.Sc. Thesis.
Taghizadeh, R. & Sharifi, R. S, (2009). Response of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 7(3/4), 518-521.
Tolera, A. & Sundstol, F. (1999). Morphological fractions of maize Stover harvested at different stages of grain maturity and nutritive value of different fractions of the Stover. Animal Feed Science Technology, 81, 1-16.
Twidwell, E. K., Johnson, K. D., Cherney, J. H. & Violence, J. J. (1988). Forage quality and digestion kinetics of switchgrass herbage and morphological components. Crop Science, 28, 778-782.
Valk, H., Kappers, I. E. & Tamminga, S. (1996). In Sacco degradation characteristics of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein of fresh grass fertilized with different amounts of nitrogen. Animal Feed Science & Technology, 63, 63-87.
Vos, J., Vander Putten, P. E. L., & Birch, C. J. (2005).  Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic maize (Zea mays L.). Field Crops Research, 93, 64-73.
Walton, P. D. (1982). Production and management of cultivated forage. First Edition. Reston Publishing Company, VA, 336 pp.
Ward, J. D., Redfearn, D. D., McCormick, M. E., & Cuomo, G. J. (2001). Chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and apparent digestibility of summer annual forages in a subtropical double-cropping system with annual ryegrass. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 177-182.
Wei, Y., & Liu, Y. (2005). Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study. Chemosphere, 59(9), 1257-1265.
Wheeler, J. L. & Corbett, J. L. (1989). Criteria for breeding forages of improved nutritive value: results of a Delphi Survey. Grass and Forage Science, 44(1), 77-83.
Wilson, J. R. (1994). Cell wall characteristics in relation to forage digestion by ruminants. Journal of Agricultural Science, 122(2), 173-182.