Cardinal temperatures for seed germination of three Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

چکیده

Quinoa (Chenepodium quinoa Willd.) is a grain-like crop which has a high potential of crop yield under arid environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the responses of seed germination rate and percentage to temperatures and estimate cardinal temperatures in three quinoa cultivars (i.e., Sajama, Titicaca and Santamaria). Germination of quinoa seeds were daily counted at the temperatures ranging from 5.0 to 40.0°C (5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0 and 40.0 °C). Four relevant regression models of segmented, beta, dent-like and modified beta were fit to germination rates with temperatures and subsequently the parameters including base temperature, optimum temperature, ceiling temperature and maximum germination rate were estimated. The accuracy of the model was measured by using RMSE (root mean square of error) and Aikaik Information Criteria (AIC). The interaction between temperature and cultivars effect was significant (p≤0.0001). For Sajama and Santamaria, the highest germination percentage occurred between 15-35 °C, while for Titicaca the highest germination was taken place between 5-35 °C. The beta and beta modified models for Santamaria and Sajama and the dent-like model for Titicaca were found to be the best models for predicting the thermal parameters of germination. Optimum thermal range for germination of Sajama was estimated at a wider ranges (i.e., 18-36 °C) rather than the other two cultivars of Santamaria (i.e., 23-35°C) or Titicaca (i.e., 22-35°C). The results of current study showed that quinoa is capable enough to germinate over a wide range of temperatures from 1.0 °C (Tb) to 54.0 °C (Tc).

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cardinal temperatures for seed germination of three Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Mamedi 1
  • Reza Tavakkol Afshari 2
  • Mostafa Oveisi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Quinoa (Chenepodium quinoa Willd.) is a grain-like crop which has a high potential of crop yield under arid environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the responses of seed germination rate and percentage to temperatures and estimate cardinal temperatures in three quinoa cultivars (i.e., Sajama, Titicaca and Santamaria). Germination of quinoa seeds were daily counted at the temperatures ranging from 5.0 to 40.0°C (5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0 and 40.0 °C). Four relevant regression models of segmented, beta, dent-like and modified beta were fit to germination rates with temperatures and subsequently the parameters including base temperature, optimum temperature, ceiling temperature and maximum germination rate were estimated. The accuracy of the model was measured by using RMSE (root mean square of error) and Aikaik Information Criteria (AIC). The interaction between temperature and cultivars effect was significant (p≤0.0001). For Sajama and Santamaria, the highest germination percentage occurred between 15-35 °C, while for Titicaca the highest germination was taken place between 5-35 °C. The beta and beta modified models for Santamaria and Sajama and the dent-like model for Titicaca were found to be the best models for predicting the thermal parameters of germination. Optimum thermal range for germination of Sajama was estimated at a wider ranges (i.e., 18-36 °C) rather than the other two cultivars of Santamaria (i.e., 23-35°C) or Titicaca (i.e., 22-35°C). The results of current study showed that quinoa is capable enough to germinate over a wide range of temperatures from 1.0 °C (Tb) to 54.0 °C (Tc).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Beta
  • dent-like
  • Germination percentage
  • Model
  • thermal parameters
Adam, N. R., Dierig, D. A., Coffelt, T. A., Wintermeyer, M. J. Mackey, B. E. & Wall, G. W. (2007). Cardinal temperatures for germination and early growth of two Lesquerella species. Industrial Crops and Products, 25, 24-33.
Ando, H., Chen, Y. C., Tang, H. J., Shimizu, M., Watanabe, K. & Mitsunaga, T. (2002). Food components in fractions of quinoa seed. Food Science Technology Research, 8, 80-84.
Al-Ahmadi, M. J. & Kafi, M. (2007). Cardinal temperatures for germination of Kochia scoparia (L.). Journal of Arid Environments, 68(2), 308-314.‏
Burnham, K. P. & Anderson, D. R. (2002). Information and likelihood theory: a basis for model selection and inference. Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2, 49-97.‏
‏Bare, C. E., Tooke, V. K. & Gentner, W. A. (1978). Temperature and light effects on germination of Papaver bracteatum, P. orientale and P. somniferum L. Planta Medica, 34, 135-143.
Bertero, H. D., Vega, A. J., Correa, G., Jacobsen, S. E. & Mujica, A. (2004). Genotype and genotype-by-environment interaction effects for grain yield and grain size of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as revealed by pattern analysis of international multi-environment trials. Field Crops Research,89, 299-318.
Bhargava, A., Shukla, S. & Ohri, D. (2006). Chenopodium quinoa-an Indian perspective. Industrial Crops and Products, 23, 73-87.
Ceccato, D. V. Daniel Bertero, H. & Batlla, D. (2011).  Environmental control of dormancy in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds: two potential genetic resources for pre-harvest sprouting tolerance. Seed Science Research, 21, 133-141.
Comai, S., Bertazzo, A., Bailoni, L., Zancato, M., Costa, C. V. L. and Allegri, G. (2007). The content of proteic and nonproteic (free and protein-bound) tryptophan in quinoa and cereal flours. Food Chemical, 100, 1350-1355.
Dashti, M., Kafi, M., Tavakkoli, H. & Mirza, M. (2015). Cardinal temperatures for germination of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Herba Polonica, 61(1), 5-18.‏
‏Flores, J. & Briones, O. (2001). Plant life-form and germination in a Mexican inter-tropical desert: effects of soil water potential and temperature. Journal of Arid Environments,47, 485-497.
Flowers, T. J., Hajibagheri, M. A. & Clipson, N. J.W. (1986). Halophytes. Quarterly Review of Biology, 22, 313-337.
Garcia, M., Raes, D. & Jacobsen, S. E. (2003). Evapotranspiration analysis and irrigation requirements of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in the Bolivian highlands. Agricultural Water Management,60, 119-134.
Geerts, S., Raes, D., Garcia, M., Condori, O., Mamani, J., Miranda, R. & Vacher, J. (2008). Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano? Agricultural Water Management, 95, 909-917.
Jacobsen, S. E., Monteros, C., Christiansen, J. L., Bravo, L. A., Corcuera, L. J. & Mujica, A. (2005). Plant responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to frost at various phonological stages. European Journal of Agronomy,22, 131-139.
Jacobsen, S. E., Mujica, A. & Jensen, C. R. (2003). The resistance of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to adverse abiotic factors. Food Reviews International, 19, 99-109.
Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. & Kafi, M. (2007). Cardinal temperatures for germination of Kochia scoparia (L.). Journal of Arid Environments, 68, 308-314.
Kamkar, B., Al-Alahmadi, M. J., Mahdavi-Damghani, A. & Villalobos, F. J. (2012). Quantification of the cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirement of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds to germinate using non-linear regression models. Industrial Crops and Products, 35, 192-198.
Kamkar, B., Ahmadi, M., Soltani, A. & Zeinali, E. (2008).  Evaluating non-linear regression models to describe response of wheat emergence rate to temperature.  Seed Science and Biotechnology, 2, 53-57.
Mwale, S. S., Azam-Ali, S. N., Clark, J. A., Bradley, R. G. & Chatha, M. R. (1994). Effect of temperature on germination of sunflower. Seed Science and Technology, 22, 565-571.
Parmoon, G., Moosavi, S. A., Akbari, H. & Ebadi, A. (2015). Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed. The Crop Journal, 3, 145-151. ‏
Piper, E. L., Boote, K. J., Jones, J. W. & Grimm, S. S. (1996). Comparison of two phenology models for predicting flowering and maturity date of soybean. Crop Science, 36, 1606-1614.
Pipper, C. B., Adolf, V. I. & Jacobsen, S. E. (2013). A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 18(1), 87-101.‏
Prado, F. E., Boero, C., Gallardo, M. & Gonzalez, J. A. (2000). Effect of NaCl on germination, growth, and soluble sugar content in (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 41, 27-34.
Reddy, K. N. & Singh, M. (1992). Germination and emergence of hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Weed Science, 195-199. ‏
Saeidnejad, A. H., Kafi, M. & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Evaluation of cardinal temperatures and germination responses of four ecotypes of Bunium persicum under different thermal conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4, 1266-1271.
Shafii, B. & Price, W. J. (2001). Estimation of cardinal temperatures in germination data analysis. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 6, 356-366.
Singh, S. K., Kakani, V. G., Brand, D., Baldwin, B. & Reddy, K. R. (2008). Assessment of cold and heat tolerance of winter-grown canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars by pollen-based parameters. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 194, 225-236.
Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Zainali, E. & Latifi, N. (2002). Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Science and Technology, 30, 51-60.
Soltani, A., Robertson, M. J., Torabi, B., Yousefi Daz, M. & Sarparast, R. (2006). Modeling seedling emergence in chickpea as influenced by temperature and sowing depth. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 138, 156-167.
Sarić-Krsmanović, M., Božić, D., Pavlović, D., Radivojević, L. & Vrbničanin, S. (2013). Temperature effects on Cuscuta campestris Yunk. Seed germination. Pesticidi i fitomedicina, 28(3), 187-193. ‏
Tabrizi, L., Nasiri Mahalati, M. & Kochaki, A. (2004). Investigation on the cardinal temperature for germination of Plantago ovate and Plantago psyllium. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 2, 143-151.
Timmermans, B. G. H., Vos, J., Van Nieuwburg, J., Stomph, T. J. & Van der Putten, P. E. L. (2007). Germination rates of Solanum sisymbriifolium: temperature response models, effects of temperature fluctuations and soil water potential. Seed Science Research, 17, 221-231.
Tolyat, M. A., Afshari, R. T., Jahansoz, M. R., Nadjafi, F. & Naghdibadi, H. A. (2014). Determination of cardinal germination temperatures of two ecotypes of Thymus daenensis subsp. daenensis. Seed Science and Technology,42, 28-35. ‏
Verma, S. K., Kumar, B., Ram, G., Singh, H. P. & Lal, R. K. (2010). Varietal effect on germination parameter at controlled and uncontrolled temperatures in Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii). Industrial Crops and Products, 32, 696-699.
Yan, W. & Hunt, L. A. (1999). An Equation for modelling the temperature response of plants using only the cardinal temperatures. Annals of Botany, 84, 607-614.
Yin, X., Krop, M. J., McLaren, G. & Visperas, R. M. (1995). A nonlinear model for crop development as a function of temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 1-16.