ارزیابی اثر تاریخ کاشت بر مؤلفه‌های تولیدی رقم‌های گندم در شرایط اقلیم گرم و خشک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

در اغلب مناطق با آب‌وهوای مدیترانه‌ای مانند ایران، زراعت گندم در دورۀ پر شدن دانه با تنش خشکی و گرما روبه‌رو شده و این تنش­ها سبب کاهش شدید عملکرد دانه می‌شود. برای بررسی اثر تنش گرما بر عملکرد رقم‌های گندم در منطقۀ جراحی ماهشهر، تحقیقی در سال زراعی 94-1393 بر پایۀ آزمایش کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تاریخ کاشت (15/8/93، 15/9/93 و 15/10/93) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و سه رقم (چمران، فلات و ویریناک) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد عامل‌های تاریخ کاشت و رقم بر ویژگی‌های عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن، ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد زیست‌توده (بیوماس)، شاخص برداشت، میزان، سهم و کارایی توزیع دوباره، میزان و کارایی نورساخت (فتوسنتز) جاری و طول سنبله تأثیر معنی­داری داشت. برهمکنش تاریخ کاشت و رقم بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن، میزان، کارایی و سهم نورساخت جاری، عملکرد زیستی، شاخص برداشت، طول سنبله، سهم توزیع دوباره و کارایی نورساخت جاری تأثیر معنی‌داری نشان داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میانگین 5548 کیلوگرم در هکتار به رقم چمران در تاریخ کاشت اول (15/8/93) و کمترین آن با میانگین 2100 کیلوگرم در هکتار متعلق به رقم فلات در تاریخ کاشت سوم (15/10/93) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment planting date effect on productivity components of wheat cultivars under warm and dry climate condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saad Asakereh 1
  • Shahram Lack 2
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In most regions with mediterraneanclimate such as Iran, wheat farming is faced to drought and heat stresses at grain filling period and consequently a sharp decrease in grain yield. The evaluation of heat stress on wheat cultivars yield in Jarahi Mahshar region, was conducted through a split plot design with randomized complete block basis with three planting dates as the main factors (First: 2014.11.6, Second: 2014.12.6 and Third: 2015.1.5) and three cultivars of wheat (Chamran, Falat, Virinak) as sub-plots with three replications in cropping season 2014-15. Results showed that planting date and the cultivars had a significant impact on grain yield, yield components, spike height, biological yield, harvest index, the scale of redistribution, share of redistribution, efficiency of redistribution, length of spike, amount and efficiency of current photosynthetic. Interaction effect between planting date and the cultivars significantly impact on the numbers of spike per square meters, the number of grains per spike, grain weight (1000 numbers), grain yield, scale of redistribution, efficiency of redistribution, amount of current photosynthesis, biological yield, harvest index, spike length, share of redistribution and current photosynthesis efficiency. Chamran had the highest yield with average of 5548 kg.ha-1 in first planting date and Falat had the lowest yield with an average of 2100 kg.ha-1 in third planting date.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Photosynthetic efficiency
  • redistribution
  • yield
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