تأثیر هنگام آبیاری تکمیلی و میزان نیتروژن بر عملکرد و ویژگی‌های زراعی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) دیم رقم کوهدشت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یاسوج، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری بیومتری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش باهدف بررسی تأثیر هنگام آبیاری تکمیلی و حد بهینۀ کاربرد نیتروژن روی عملکرد دانۀ گندم دیم رقم کوهدشت در ایستگاه تحقیقات دیم گچساران اجرا شد. به همین منظور زمان‏های آبیاری در کرت‏های اصلی (شاهد، کاشت، گلدهی و کاشت + گلدهی به میزان 50 میلی‏متر) و مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن (0، 30، 60، 90 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کرت‏های فرعی به‌صورت طرح کرت‌های خردشده (اسپلیت پلات) بر پایۀ بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی از سال 89 - 1388 به مدت سه سال متوالی، بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد رابطۀ بین نیتروژن مصرفی با عملکرد دانه از معادلۀ رگرسیون درجۀ دوم پیروی کرده و میانگین نیاز نیتروژنی گندم دیم رقم کوهدشت، حدود 80 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار برای دستیابی به 95 درصد بیشینه عملکرد دانه، تعیین شد و تغییر این میزان از کاربرد نیتروژن، توانست 86 درصد از تغییرپذیری عملکرد دانه را توجیه کند (R2= 86). همچنین از میان تیمارهای دارای آبیاری تکمیلی، 50 میلی‌متر آبیاری در مرحلۀ گلدهی گندم نسبت به بدون آبیاری، عملکرد دانه را 43 درصد افزایش داد. درنهایت با توجه به یافته‎های این پژوهش، کاربرد میزان 80 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحلۀ گلدهی گندم دیم، برای بهبود و افزایش عملکرد دانۀ آن، ضروری بوده و توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of supplemental irrigation time and nitrogen rates on yield and agronomic characteristics of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Kohdasht variety

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosratollah Heidarpour 1
  • Sajad Talaee 2
1 Research lecturer of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yasouj, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student in Biometry, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sari Agriculture and Natural Resource University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study carried out to investigate the effect of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen application times on seed yield and agronomic characteristics of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Kohdasht variety in Gachsaran dryland agricultural research station. For this purpose, the irrigation times in main plots (Rainfed, Planting, Flowering, Planting + Flowering with rates of 50mm) and different nitrogen rates (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.h-1) in sub plots were studied based on RCBD split plot design for three consecutive years, during 2009-12 seasons. According to the results, the relationship between the amount of applied nitrogen and seed yield following the quadratic regression equation and average requirement of nitrogen for Kohdasht variety wheat was determined 80 kg.h-1 to achieve 95 percent of maximum seed yield. This value change of nitrogen, could explain 86 percent of variation in grain yield (R2=0.86). Also among supplemental irrigation treatments, the amount of 50 mm irrigation at wheat flowering stage compared to rainfed (non-irrigated), increased grain yield by 43 percent. Finally, according to the findings of this study, it is necessarily recommended to apply 80 kg.h-1 nitrogen in combination with supplemental irrigation at wheat flowering stage, to improve and increase yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fertilization
  • Gachsaran region
  • moisture deficit
  • Optimal level
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