بررسی تحمل ژنوتیپ‌های سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) به تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات سبزی و صیفی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استاد، بخش تحقیقات علف‌های هرز، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سیب‌زمینی جزو گیاهان حساس به کم­آبی است. این بررسی به‌صورت طرح کرت‌های خردشده (اسپلیت× فاکتوریل بر پایۀ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار، در منطقۀ کرج در سال 1393 اجرا شد که در آن ژنوتیپ­های سیب‌زمینی در یازده سطح (آگریا، کایزر، ساوالان، سانته، مارفونا، هرمس، جلی، پیکاسو، میلوا، 1-397081، 2-397069) و تیمارهای آبیاری در دو سطح (تنش و شاهد) و نمونه­برداری­ها در دو مرحلۀ (پایان تنش و بازیافت) در نظرگرفته شد. آبیاری به‌صورت قطره‌ای و متداول انجام و در مرحلۀ تشکیل غده، آبیاری تیمار تنش قطع و تیمار شاهد به‌صورت متداول آبیاری شد. پس از اینکه کمبود رطوبت خاک به 90 درصد رسید، دوباره آبیاری انجام تا خاک به ظرفیت زراعی رسیده و تا انتهای دورۀ رشد به‌صورت متداول انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد میانگین قطر کوچک و بزرگ غده، شمار غده، غدۀ سالم، غده­های کوچک‌تر از 35 و بیش از 55 میلی­متر، وزن خشک و تر غده­های­ سالم در بوته بین ژنوتیپ­های مختلف، سطوح آبیاری و مرحلۀ اندازه­گیری اختلاف معنی­دار داشتند. درحالی‌که از لحاظ میانگین شمار غده بین 55-35 میلی­متر در هر بوته تنها اثر ژنوتیپ­ها و سطوح آبیاری معنی­دار شد. بیشترین درصد تغییرها در پایان دورۀ رشد در شمار غده­های کوچک‌تر از 35 میلی­متر، وزن خشک و تر غده­های سالم ملاحظه شد. در این تحقیق شاخص­های تحمل و حساسیت به خشکی برآورد و بر این پایه ژنوتیپ­های همسان در چهار گروه اول میلوا، سانته، پیکاسو، دوم هرمس، 1-397081، مارفونا، ساوالان، جلی، آگریا، سوم 2-397069 و چهارم کایزر طبقه­بندی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of potato genotypes (Solanum tubersum L.) tolerance to water deficit stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marjan Samaee 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Ahmad Mousapour Gorji 3
  • Eskandar Zand 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of vegetable, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, AREEO, Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Weed Science, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, AREEO, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Potato is one of the susceptible crops to drought. This research was carried out as a split factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Karaj in 2014. Potato genotypes at 11 levels (Agria, Caesar, Savalan, Sante, Marfona, Milva, Picasso, Hermes, Jelli, 397081-1, 397069-2), irrigation treatment in two levels (stress and control) and samplings in two stages (after stress and recovery) were considered. Irrigation was done as drip and conventional systems and in the stage of tuber production, watering for stress treatment was stopped and control treatment was irrigated normally. After getting to ninety percent of the soil moisture deficit, irrigation restarted until the soil moisture reached to the field capacity and normally continued up to the end of growing season. The results showed that there were significant differences among genotypes, the irrigation levels and the stages of measurement for large and small diameters of the tubers, number of tubers and healthy tubers, the tuber smaller than 35 and larger than 55 mm, dry and fresh weight of the healthy tubers per plant. However, number of tubers between 35-55 mm was, significantly different for the genotypes and irrigation levels. The most changes were observed in the tuber number smaller than 35 mm, dry and fresh weight of the healthy tubers. In addition, in this research, genotypes were categorized in 4 groupes according to the estimated drought tolerance and sensitivity indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • genotype
  • potato
  • recovery
  • Tolerance Index
  • water deficit stress
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