تأثیر کاربرد مقادیر مختلف کود دامی و ورمی‌کمپوست بر عملکرد و ترکیبات اسانس بادرشبی (Dracocephalum moldavica L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه زراعت دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن

چکیده

کاربرد کودهای آلی با هدف جایگزینی یا کاهش قابل ملاحظه در کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی، موجب افزایش کیفیت و عملکرد در تولید پایدار گیاهان زراعی می‌شود. به منظور بررسی تأثیر مقادیر مختلف کود دامی و ورمی‌کمپوست بر عملکرد و ترکیبات اسانس بادرشبی، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با هشت تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعة پاکدشت در سال 1391 انجام گرفت. تیمارها شامل 10 و 20 تن کود دامی در هکتار، 5 و 10 تن ورمی‌کمپوست در هکتار، 5 تن کود دامی همراه با 5/2 تن ورمی‌کمپوست در هکتار، 10 تن کود دامی همراه با 5 تن ورمی‌کمپوست در هکتار، کود شیمیایی (تنها 70 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) و شاهد (بدون کاربرد کود) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد پیکرة رویشی (7/4398 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، میزان اسانس (153/0 درصد) و عملکرد اسانس (75/6 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، درصد ژرانیل‌استات در اسانس (61/57 درصد) و درصد ژرانیول در اسانس (09/21 درصد) به ترتیب در تیمارهای کاربرد 10 تن کود دامی، 5 تن ورمی‌کمپوست و 10 تن کود دامی همراه با 5 تن ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. همچنین بیشترین درصد ژرانیال (47/11 درصد)، نرال (11/7 درصد) و نریل‌استات (34/4 درصد) در اسانس در تیمار کاربرد 10 تن ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. در مجموع بیشترین عملکردهای پیکرة رویشی و اسانس با کاربرد 10 تن کود دامی و بیشترین ترکیبات اسانس با کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of different manure and vermicompost rates on yield and essential oil contents of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Taghi Darzi 1
  • Reza Attarpoor 2
  • Mohammadreza Haj Seyed Hadi 1
1 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rude Hen Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 M. Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rude Hen Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Application of organic fertilizers increases quality and yields in the sustainable crop production and considerably replaces or reduces chemical fertilizers. In order to study the effects of different manure and vermicompost rates on yield and essential oil contents of dragonhead, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications in the field of Pakdasht city in 2012. The treatments were 10 and 20 t/ha manure, 5 and 10 t/ha vermicompost, 5 t/ha manure + 2.5 t/ha vermicompost, 10 t/ha manure + 5 t/ha vermicompost, chemical fertilizer (70 kg/ha nitrogen) and control (without fertilizer). The results showed that the highest herbage yield, essential oil contents and yield, geranyl acetate percentage and geraniol percentage in essential oil were obtained by using 10 t/ha manure, 5 t/ha vermicompost and integrated application of 10 t/ha manure and 5 t/ha vermicompost, respectively. The highest geranial percentage, neral percentage and neryl acetate percentage in essential oil were obtained by using 10 t/ha vermicompost application. Generally, the highest herbage and essential oil yields were obtained by using 10 t/ha manure application and the highest essential oil contents with vermicompost application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil
  • geraniol
  • Geranyl acetate
  • organic manure
Abdel-Baky, H.H. & El-Baroty, G.S. (2008). Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oil of Egyptian moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). International Journal of Integrative Biology, 3(2), 202-208.
Ahmadian, A., Ghanbari, A. & Galavi, M. (2009). Effects of drought stress and cattle manure interaction on yield components, essential oil content and its chemical compositions in Cuminum cyminumIranian Journal of Field Crops Sciences, 40(1), 173-180.
Akbarinia, A, Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F., Rezaee, M.B. & Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E. (2004). Study on the effect of different rates of chemical fertilizer, manure and mixture of them on seed yield and main, compositions of essential oil of Ajowan (Trachyspermum copticum). Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 61, 32-41.
Anwar, M., Patra, D.D., Chand, S., Alpesh, K., Naqvi, A.A. & Khanuja, S.P.S. (2005). Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analys, 36 (13-14), 1737-1746.
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Bierman, P., Metzger, J.D. & Lucht, C. (2005). Effects of vermicomposts produced from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste on the growth and yield of peppers in the field. Pedobiologia, 49(4): 297-306.
Araya, H.T., Soundy, P., Steyn, J.M., Teubes, C., Learmonth, R.A. & Mojela, N. (2006). Response of herbage yield, essential oil yield and composition of South African rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) to conventional and organic nitrogen. Journal of Essential oil Research, 18, 111-115.
Ateia, E. M., Osman, Y. A. H. & Meawad, A. E. A. H. (2009). Effect of organic fertilization on yield and active constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. under North Sinai conditions.Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5(4), 555-565.
Azzaz, N. A., Hassan, E. A. & Hamad, E. H. (2009). The chemical constituent and vegetative and yielding characteristics of fennel plants treated with organic and bio-fertilizer instead of mineral fertilizer. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 579-587.
Darzi, M.T., Ghalavand, A., Sephidkon, F. & Rejali, F. (2009). Effects of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phosphatic biofertilizer application on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 24(4), 396-413.
Darzi, M.T., Haj Seyed Hadi, M.R. & Rejali, F. (2012a). Effects of the application of vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria on quantity and quality of the essential oil in dill (Anethum graveolens).Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 6(21), 3793-3799.
Darzi, M.T., Haj Seyed Hadi, M.R. & Rejali, F. (2012b). Effects of cattle manure and biofertilizer application on biological yield, seed yield and essential oil in coriander (Coriandrum sativum).Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9(11), 77-90.
Darzi, M.T., Hadj Seyed Hadi, M.R. & Rejali, F. (2013). Effects of vermicompost and phosphatic biofertilizer application on quantity and quality of essential oil in anise. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 29(3), 583-594.
Fallahi, J., Koocheki, A. & Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2008). Investigating the effects of organic fertilizers on quantity index and the amount of essential oil and chamazulene in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Agriculture Research: Water, Soil and Plant in Agriculture, 8(1), 157-168.
Geetha, A., Rao, P.V., Reddy, D.V. & Mohammad, S. (2009). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on macro and micro nutrient uptake, oil content, quality and herbage yield in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Research on Crops, 10(3), 740-742.   
Harshavardhan, P. G., Vasundhara, M., Shetty, G. R., Nataraja, A., Sreeramu, B. S., Gowda, M. C. & Sreenivasappa, K. N. (2007). Influence of spacing and integrated nutrient management on yield and quality of essential oil in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L). Biomed. 2(3), 288-292.   
Hussein, M.S., El-Sherbeny, S.E., Khalil, M.Y., Naguib, N.Y. & Aly, S.M. (2006). Growth characters and chemical constituents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. plants in relation to compost fertilizer and planting distance. Scientia Horticulturae. 108, 322-331.
Kaplan, M., Kocabas, I., Sonmez, I. & Kalkan, H. (2009). The effects of different organic manure applications on the dry weight and the essential oil quantity of sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill.). Acta Horticulturae, 826, 147-152.
Kapoor, R., Giri, B. & Mukerji, K.G. (2004). Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology, 93, 307-311.
Khalid, K. A. & Shafei, A. M. (2005). Productivity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) as influenced by different organic manure rates and sources. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(3), 901-913.
Mafakheri, S., Omidbaigi, R., Sefidkon, F. & Rejali, F. (2012). Effect of vermicompost, biophosphate and azotobacter on quantity and quality of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 27(4), 596-605.
Maham, M., Akbari, H. & Delazar, A. (2013). Chemical composition and antinociceptive effect of the essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18(4), 187-192.
Makkizadeh, M., Nasrollahzadeh, S., Zehtab Salmasi, S., Chaichi, M. & Khavazi, K. (2011). The Effect of organic, biologic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agriculture Science and Sustainable Production, 22(1), 1-12.
Moradi, R., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Lakzian, A. & Nejad Ali, A. (2011). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Horticultural Science, 25(1), 25-33.
Omidbaigi, R. (1997). Approaches to production and processing of medicinal plants. Tarrahane Nashr. Tehran. 424 p.
Osman, Y. A. H. (2009). Comparative study of some agricultural treatments effects on plant growth, yield and chemical constituents of some fennel varieties under Sinai conditions. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5(4), 541-554.
Padmapriya, S. & Chezhiyan, N. (2009). Effect of shade, organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on morphology, yield and quality of turmeric. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66(3), 333-339.
Rahbarian, P., Afsharmanesh, G.R. & Shirzadi, M.H. (2010). Effects of low irrigation and cattle manure on dry herb yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) in Jiroft. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(11), 55-64.
Safaei, L., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Afiuni, D., Davazdah Emami, S. & Shoaii, A. (2014). The effect of different nutrition systems on aerial parts and essential oil yield of Thymus daenensis Celak. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30(5), 702-713.
Sefidkon, F. (2001). Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative essential oil fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) in different stages of growth. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 7, 85-104.
Sharma, A.K. (2002).  Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios Publication, India, 407 p.
Singh M. & Ramesh, S. (2002). Response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) to organic and inorganic fertilizer in semi-arid tropical conditions. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science, 24(4), 947-950.
Yassen, A. A. & Khalid, K. A. (2009). Influence of organic fertilizers on the yield, essential oil and mineral content of onion.  International Agrophysics, 23(2), 183-188.