تاثیر روش های مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر عملکرد گندم دیم در اقلیم های سرد، معتدل و نیمه‌گرمسیری استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشتة اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانشیار پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

به منظور تعیین‏ تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر عملکرد و برخی صفات گندم و همچنین برخی ویژگی‌های خاک در گندم دیم، شش آزمایش‌ ‏در اقلیم‌های سردسیر، معتدل و نیمه‌گرمسیر استان کرمانشاه در غرب ایران در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با پنج تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل سه روش خاک‌ورزی، بی‌خاک‌ورزی، خاک‌ورزی کاهشی و خاک‌ورزی متداول بودند.‌ بیشترین عملکرد در روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی (2365 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و خاک‌ورزی کاهشی (2373 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در اقلیم معتدل سال دوم، مشاهده شد. بیشترین میزان ارزش اقتصادی مربوط به روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی (24832 هزار ریال) و خاک‌ورزی کاهشی (24316 هزار ریال) اقلیم معتدل سال دوم و روش بی‌خاک‌ورزی اقلیم نیمه‌گرمسیری سال دوم (22753 هزار ریال) بود. در همة اقلیم‌ها و سال‌ها، روش بی‌خاک‌ورزی با 97/11درصد (حدود دو برابر) و روش خاک‌ورزی کاهشی با 16/10درصد (بیش از 5/1 برابر) مقادیر بیشتری از درصد رطوبت حجمی خاک را نسبت به خاک‌ورزی متداول (20/6درصد) حفظ کردند. کربن آلی خاک خیلی تحت تأثیر روش خاک‌ورزی، نوع اقلیم و سال‌های آزمایش قرار نگرفت ولی روند کلی تغییرپذیری‌ها نشان داد روش‌های بی‌خاک‌ورزی و خاک‌ورزی کاهشی (به‌جز سال دوم اقلیم نیمه‌گرمسیری) از نظر کربن آلی خاک به ترتیب 6/1 و 3/1 درصد بیشتر از روش خاک‌ورزی متداول بودند. کمترین وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک در خاک‌ورزی متداول (24/1) مشاهده شد. به‌طورکلی می‌توان نتیجه‌ گرفت کاربرد روش خاک‌ورزی کاهشی، افزون بر تأمین نیاز‌های اقتصادی، از نظر حفظ منابع آب و خاک مؤثر بوده و موجب دستیابی به هدف‌های کشاورزی پایدار می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of using different tillage methods on dryland wheat yield under cold, moderate and semi-warm climatic conditions of Kermanshah province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Chaghazardi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Jahnsuz 2
  • Ali Ahmadi 2
  • Manouchehr Gorji 3
1 Ph.D Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of different tillage systems on yield and some characteristic of wheat and also some soil properties in wheat dry land area, six experiments were performed in cold, moderate and semi-warm climatic conditions of Kermanshah province in west of Iran, in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Experimental treatments were consisted of no-tillage, reduced tillage and conventional tillage systems. The highest seed yield was observed in no-tillage (2365 kg ha-1) and reduced tillage (2373 kg ha-1) systems of moderate climate of the second year. The highest economic value was related to no-tillage (24832 thousand Rials) and reduced tillage (24316 thousand Rials) systems of moderate climate of the second year and no-tillage system of moderate climate of the second year (22753 thousand Rials). In all climates and years, no-tillage system with 11.97% (about two times) following by reduced tillage with 11.16% (more than 1.5 times), preserved large soil moisture in comparison to conventional tillage system (6.2%). Soil organic carbon was not affected by climate type and experimental years, but general trend of differences indicated that no-tillage and reduced tillage systems (except the second year of warm climate) 1.6 and 1.3% were higher than conventional tillage system. The lowest soil bulk density (1.24) was observed in the conventional tillage system. In general, it could be concluded that conservation tillage systems can supply, more yield and economic returns, as well as conserving more water than conventional tillage and its application is a necessary step toward a sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • tillage
  • Wheat
  • Yield components
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