ارزیابی جوانه‏زنی ارقام کنجد در واکنش به دما: تعیین دماهای مهم و مقاومت به دما

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

2 استادیار، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه تهران پردیس ابوریحان.

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق ارزیابی جوانه‏زنی ژن‌نمون (ژنوتیپ)‏های مختلف کنجد در واکنش به دما بود. با استفاده از دماهای مهم (کاردینال) یعنی کمینه، بهینه و بیشینه شاخص‏های تحمل به دمای بالا و پایین تعیین و ژن‌نمون‏های مختلف از این نظر ارزیابی شدند. به این منظور آزمایش جوانه­زنی با چهار تکرار 50 بذری در درون اتاقک (انکوباتور)های رشد با دماهای ثابت 10، 15، 20، 25، 30، 35، 40 و 45 درجة سلسیوس روی نه ژن‌نمون کنجد صورت گرفت. در نهایت با تابع دو تکه‏ای، دماهای مهم تعیین شدند و با کمک دماهای مهم بردباری به دماهای بالا و پایین برای ژن‌نمون‏های مختلف تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین دماهای کمینه (پایه)، بهینه (مطلوب) و بیشینه (سقف) در ژن‌نمون‏های مورد ارزیابی 8/12، 0/38 و 3/49 درجة سلسیوس بود. دامنة بردباری به دماهای زیر بهینه، دماهای بالای بهینه و دامنة بردباری کل به‏ترتیب 3/11، 2/25 درجة سلسیوس و 5/36 درجة سلسیوس تعیین شد. شاخص تحمل به سرما و گرما نیز بین ژن‌نمون‏ها تفاوت معنی‏داری داشتند و میانگین آنها برای ژن‌نمون‏های مختلف به‏ترتیب 37/2 و 73/2 درصد بود. در نهایت اینکه، بیشینة میزان جوانه‏زنی، شاخص تحمل به گرما (HTI) و دمای کمینه به ترتیب با 5/95، 9/95 و 3/98 درصد بیشترین توارث‏پذیری را داشتند و کمترین قابلیت توارث به‏ترتیب مربوط به صفت دمای بیشینه با 2/3 درصد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of sesame cultivars germination on response to temperature: determination of cardinal temperatures and thermal tolerance

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshid Ghadri-Far 1
  • Elias Soltani 2
1 Department of Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan 49138-15739, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aboureihan Campus University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to evaluate germination of different sesame genotypes on response to temperature. Heat and Cold Tolerance Indexes were determined using cardinal temperatures and evaluations of genotypes were conducted to tolerate high or low temperatures using determined indexes. In order to, germination tests were conducted in fixed temperatures incubators with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 oC on 9 sesame genotypes, in 4 replications with 50 seeds. Finally, cardinal temperatures were estimated using segmented function, and tolerant genotypes to high or low temperatures were determined using estimated cardinal temperatures. Results indicated that mean of base (Tb), optimum (To) and ceiling (Tc) temperatures were 12.8, 38.0 and 49.3oC for studied genotypes. Thermal tolerances in sub-optimal, supra-optimal and total thermal tolerance were 25.2, 11.3, and 36.5 oC, respectively. Tolerance index to cold or heat were significantly differed among genotypes, and the mean of them were 2.37 and 2.73. Finally, maximum germination rate, heat tolerance index (HTI) and Tb had the maximum heritability ratio with 98.3, 95.9 and 95.5 ٪ and the minimum heritability ratio was 3.2 ٪ for Tc.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nonlinear model
  • cardinal temperatures
  • thermal tolerance
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