بررسی تأثیر محلول پاشی پلی آمین اسپرمیدین بر بهبود برخی شاخص های فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد سویا در شرایط کم آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بوم‌شناسی کشاورزی دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت

3 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر محلول­پاشی پلی­آمین اسپرمیدین بر برخی شاخص­های فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد سویا (رقم کاسپین) در شرایط کم­آبیاری، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت­پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 95-1394 در مزرعه مرکز جهاد کشاورزی چپکرود جویبار، در استان مازندران انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آبیاری در چهار سطح (100،70،50 و 30 درصد نیاز آبی) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و محلول پاشی پلی آمین اسپرمیدین در سه سطح (صفر(شاهد)، نیم و یک میلی­مولار) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. صفات مورد اندازه­گیری شامل تعداد برگ، تعداد غلاف در گیاه، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد دانه در گیاه، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد ماده خشک تک­بوته، عملکرد دانه تک­بوته، شاخص پایداری غشاء (MSI)، میزان نسبی آب برگ (RWC)، نشت الکترولیت (EL)، مالون­دی­آلدئید (MDA)، و پراکسید هیدروژن (H2O2) بود. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط کم­آبیاری استفاده از پلی­آمین اسپرمیدین در غلظت­های مختلف بر تمامی صفات به جز تعداد برگ تأثیر معنی­داری داشت. در بررسی اثرات متقابل نتایج نشان داد که با کاهش میزان آبیاری از 100 درصد نیاز آبی تا کمترین میزان آن (30 درصد نیاز آبی) محلول­پاشی غلظت یک میلی­مولار پلی آمین اسپرمیدین باعث افزایش معنی­دار در تعداد غلاف و دانه در گیاه، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد ماده خشک تک­بوته به ترتیب به میزان 20،50،90،90 درصد گردید. همچنین مقدار محتوای نسبی آب برگ نسبت به شرایط شاهد(بدون استفاده از پلی آمین اسپرمیدین) به ترتیب به میزان 63 درصد افزایش و میزان نشت الکترولیت ، 16 درصد کاهش یافت. مقدار شاخص پایداری غشاء نسبت به شرایط بدون استفاده از پلی آمین اسپرمیدین 13/1 برابر افزایش یافت. با کاهش سطح آبیاری به 30 درصد نیاز آبی، غلظت نیم میلی­مولار پلی آمین اسپرمیدین باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه به میزان 90 درصد وکاهش مقدار پراکسید هیدروژن و مالون­دی­آلدئید به ترتیب 67 و 34 درصد گردید که حاکی از افزایش تحمل به خشکی در گیاه بوده است. در مجموع، نتایج بیانگر تأثیر مثبت استفاده از پلی آمین اسپرمیدین بر تحمل به خشکی در سویا(رقم کاسپین) در شرایط کم­آبیاری از طریق بهبود خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی و اجزای عملکرد گیاه بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evaluation of spermidine polyamine foliar spraying effects on improving some physiological indices and yield in soybean under low-irrigation condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Heidargholinezhadkenari 1
  • Manoochehr Gholipoor 2
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 3
  • Hamid Abbasdokht 2
1 Shahrood Industrial University
2 Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Industrial University of Shahrood, Iran
3 Agronomy Department, University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource of Sari
چکیده [English]

To evaluate of spermidine polyamine (SPD) foliar spraying effect on physiological indices and soybean yield (cv.'Caspian') under low-irrigation condition, a split-plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Chapakrood, Joybar, Mazandaran province, in the year of 2016. The treatments incorporated the four levels of irrigation (100, 70, 50 and 30% of water requirement) as main plots and the three levels of foliar spraying SPD (0 (control), 0.5, 1 mM) as sub-plots. The evaluated parameters includes leaf number, pod number per plant, plant height, seed number per plant, the thousands seeds weights, the dry matter yield in a single plant, seed yield in a single plant, membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results displayed that the application of SPD in various concentration had a significant effect on all characteristics except leaf numbers under low-irrigation conditions. In the evaluation of the interaction effects, the exhibited results showed that between low- irrigation and SPD, the SPD spraying concentration at the rate of 1 mM by reduced irrigation conditions from normal water requirement (100%) to its 30% requirement will result in significant incense in the pod number, seed number per plant, one thousands seeds weight, and dry matter yield by 90, 90, 50 and 20 %, respectively. Also, RWC and MSI increased up to 63% and 1.13 times, respectively, while EL decreased by 16% as compared to no-SPD conditions. With the decrease of irrigation rate to 30 % water requirement, the SPD concentration of 0.5 mM made seed yield to increase up to 90%, while H2O2 and MDA decreased to 67% and 34%, respectively that is the indication of plant drought tolerance. In sum, the results indicated the positive effect of the application of SPD improved drought tolerance in soybean (cv.'Caspian') under low-irrigation condition through the improvement of physiological characteristics and yield components.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dry matter
  • electrolyte leakage
  • Malondealdehyde
  • Membrane stability index
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