عنوان مقاله [English]
To study the effect of nutrition and irrigation systems on growth properties and forage quality of sainfoin, this experiment was conducted as factorial split in time, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Field of Tarbiat Modares University during the 2015-2016 growing season. The combination factorial of fertilizer treatments (vermicompost, urea and non-fertilizer), irrigation methods (alternate and conventional) and irrigation interval (6, 12 and 18-days) were main factors and two cuts were sub factor. The highest dry weight of forage was obtained by six and twelve days conventional irrigation intervals. The highest dry weight of leaf and stem was observed in six days conventional irrigation intervals with vermicompost application. The first cut had the highest NDF by 34% and Potassium by 3.8%. The highest crude protein of 21.9% was observed in the second cut with application of vermicompost and conventional irrigation. The four-way interaction between cut, fertilizer, irrigation interval and method was significant for phosphorous concentration. According to the results, vermicompost can mitigate the effect of deficit irrigation on sainfoin and in the absence of any fertilizer, there was no significant difference between irrigation regimes in terms of yield. On the other hand, the use of alternate irrigation with longer intervals, especially in the first cut, can be investigated according to weather conditions, cost-effectiveness and low differences with other irrigation regimes.
10. FAO. (1973). Ground water Seminar Granada. Report of the FAO/United Nation Development Government of Spain Seminar on the Role of Groundwater in the Optimal Utilization of Hydraulic Resources. Irrigation and drainage paper 18, FAO, Rome.
11. Ghaemi, A. A., hoseinabadi, M. Z. & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2008). Water use efficiency and yield of sugar beet under conventional and alternate tap and furrow irrigation. Water and Soil Science, pp. 127-138.
12. Hajibabaei, M. & Azizi, F. (2014). Effect of irrigation regimes on Morphophysiological characteristics and yield of forage corn hybrids. Crop Physiology Journal, 22, 89-100.
13. Hasanzadeh, P. (2007). Effect of vermicompost on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of German chamomile. Master's thesis of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Guilan.
14. Howell, T. A., Evett, S. R. Tolk. J. A. & Schneider, A. D. (2004). Evapotranspiration of full and Deficit irrigated and dry land Cotton on The Northern Texas High Plains. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-Asce, 130, 277-285.
15. Javadi, H., Saberi, M. H., Azari Nasrabad, A. & Khosravi, S. (2010). The study of amounts and methods of nitrogen application on qualitative and quantitative traits in forage sorghum. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8, 384-392. (In Farsi)
16. Joshi, R., Singh, J. & Vig, A. P. (2015). Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: Effect and growth, yield and quality of plants. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnol, 14, 137-159.
17. Juskiw, p. e., Helm, J. H. & salmon, D. f. (2000). Forage yield and quality for mono crops and mixtures of small grain cereals. Crop Science, 40, 138-147.
18. Kafi, M., Borzooei, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoomi, A. & Nabati, J. (2013). Physiology of Environmental Stresses in Plants. Jihad Publications, University of Mashhad. (In Farsi)
19. Karimian, M. Glovy, A., dahmardeh, M. & Kafi, M. (2014). Effect of drought stress and different levels of potassium fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative forage efficiency of Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.). Quarterly New Findings in Agriculture, 8, 239-250. (In Farsi)
20. Kazemi-Arbat, H., Rahimzadeh Khoyi, F., Moghaddam, M. & Banaei Khosraghi, A. (2000).The effects of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers and irrigation intervals on biomass yield of forage sorghum, Speedfeed,. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 31, 713-723. (In Farsi)
21. Kochaki, A., Gholami, A., Mahdavi Damghani, A. & Tabrizi, M. (2009). Principles of Agriculture Organic (Translation). Mashhad Ferdowsi University Press, p 301. (In Farsi)
22. Kuchenmeister, K., Kuchenmeister, F. Kayser, M. Wrage-Monning, N. & Isselstein, J. (2013). Influence of drought stress on nutritive value of perennial forage legumes. International Journal of Plant production, 7, 693-710.
23. Majidi M. M. (2015). Evaluation of Iranian sainfoin ecotypes (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) under non-stress and drought stress condition. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 46. 327-338. (In Farsi)
24. Musavi Fazl, S. H., Alizadeh, A., Ansari, H. & Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2015). Effect of different levels of irrigation water and potassium fertilizer on root and shoot growth of forage sorghum. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 8, 747-756. (In Farsi)
25. Najarian, D., Fanoodi, F., Masoud-Sinaki. J. & laei, G. (2016). The effect of irrigation cut tension and applying compost fertilizer on yield and yield components of cowpea (Vignaung uiculata L.). Crop Physiology Journal, 8. 59-72.
26. Paigozar, U., Ghanbari, A., Heydari, M. & Tavassoli, A. (2007). Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on qualitative and quantities pearl millet (Pennisetum glacum L.). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 10, 67-79. (In Farsi)
27. Pandy, R. K. & Maranville, J. W. (2000). Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction. Agricultural Water Management, 46, 15-27.Peterson, P. R., Jogloyb, S., Vorasootb, N., Toomsanb, B. & Kesmalab, T. (2013). Assocation ofnitrogen fixation to water uses efficiency and yield traits of peanut. International journal Plant Product, 7, 225-242.
28. Pirzad, A., Shakiba, M. R., Zehtab-Salmasi, S. & Mohammadi, S. A. (2015). Effects of water stress on some nutrients uptake in Matricaria chamomile L. Applied Field Crop Research, 28, 1-7. (In Farsi)
29. Saberali, S.F., Sadatnouri, S.A., Hejazi, A. & Zand, E. (2007). Influence of plant density and planting pattern of corn on its growth and yield under competition with common lambesquarters (Chenopodium album). Journal Research Production, 74, 143-152.
30. Samsamipoor, M., Afrasiab, P., Emdad, M. R., Delbari, M. & Karandish, F. (2015). Evaluation of Corn forage yield and yield components under alternate furrow irrigation. Iranian Journal Soil and Water Research, 46, 11-18. (In Farsi)
31. Scharenberg, A., Arrigo, Y., Gutzwiller, A., Hess, H. D., Wyss, U., Kreuzer, M. & Dohme, F. (2007). Effect of feeding carefully dried and ensiled tanniferous Sainfoin (Onobrychis Viciifolia) on Protein Metabolism of Lambs. 2nd International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Vichy, Frankreich, pp. 1-11.
32. Schut, A. & Gherardi, S. & Wood, D. (2010). Empirical models to quantify the nutritive characteristics of annual pastures in south-west Western Australia. Crop and Pasture Science, 61, 32-43.
33. Shahrajabian, M. H., Fathi, G., Soleymani, A. & Bakhshandeh, A. M. (2010). Effect of different levels of nitrogen and irrigation intervals on yield, yield components of forage sorghum after wheat in Mahmoodabad in Isfahan. Fifth National Conference New Ideas in Agriculture, 27-28 February, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan, Faculty of Agriculture. (In Farsi)
34. Shivazad, M. (1995). Ration Formulation by computer. Publication of stock company the production, distribution and distribution of forage, p 210. (In Farsi)
35. Torbatinezhad, N. M., Chaeichi, M. R. & Sharifi, S. (2002). Effect of nitrogen level on yield and yield components of three forage sorghum cultivars in Gorgan. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 9, 205-220. (In Farsi)
36. Xiao, Y., Zhang, J., Jia, T. T., Pang, X. P. & Guo Z. G. (2015). Effects of Alternate Furrow Irrigation on the Biomass and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa). Agricultural Water Management, 161, 147-154.
37. Zabet, M., Bahamin, S., GHoreishi, S. & Sadeghi, H. (2015). Effect of deficit irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on quantitative yield of aboveground part of forage pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Birjand. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 7, 187-194. (In Farsi)