بررسی مقاومت به جوانه‌زنی بذر قبل از برداشت در ارقام برنج Oryza sativa L.

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 رشت، دانشگاه گیلان، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات

2 دانشیار دانشگاه رشت

3 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی و شناسایی ارقام مقاوم به جوانه‌زنی قبل از برداشت، 20 رقم برنج شامل 16 رقم بومی و چهار رقم اصلاح شده در آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در بهار سال 1393 در مزرعه شخصی واقع در روستای لله‌وجه‌سر در بخش بندرکیاشهر استان گیلان کشت شدند. صفات تاریخ خوشه‌دهی، تاریخ گلدهی و مرحله رشدی زادکس 92 در مزرعه یادداشت‌برداری شد. خوشه‌ها در مرحله زادکس 92 برداشت و رطوبت بذر بلافاصله پس از برداشت اندازه‌گیری شد. ارزیابی جوانه‌زنی روی خوشه توسط دو روش غربال شامل نمره جوانه‌زنی (Sprouting Score) و شاخص جوانه‌زنی (Sprouting Index) تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی انجام شد. سپس صفات مرتبط با آن از قبیل خواب بذر، طول دوره پس‌رسی و فعالیت آنزیم آلفا‌آمیلاز و میزان پروتئین جنین در شرایط آزمایشگاهی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در هر دو روش ارقام با سطوح بالای خواب بذر نسبت به جوانه‌زنی روی خوشه مقاومت بالایی نشان دادند. کلیه ارقام مورد بررسی از نظر تمامی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی دانه برنج دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار بودند. نتایج تجزیه همبستگی نشان داد که همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری بین نمره جوانه‌زنی و شاخص جوانه‌زنی با فعالیت آنزیم آلفاآمیلاز و همبستگی منفی و معنی‌داری بین این دو صفت با شاخص خواب بذر (شدت خواب) و ضریب رگرسیون دوره پس‌رسی (دوام خواب) وجود دارد. هم‌چنین اختلاف معنی‌داری بین میزان پروتئین جنین بذر رقم دارای خواب و بدون خواب در مراحل اولیه جذب آب و تحت تیمار‌های حرارتی مشاهده شد.‌ براساس تجزیه کلاستر ارقام در سه گروه قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Resistance to pre-harvest seed sprouting in different cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Mansoorpour 1
  • Seyed MohammadReza Ehteshami 2
  • Elmira Mohammadvand 1
  • Hamid Dorosti 3
1 University of Guilan
2 Rasht
3 Research Institute of Rice
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate and identify theresistant cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to pre-harvest sprouting, this study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a personal farm located at the lalevajesar village, Bandar Kiashahr, Guilan province, Iran in2014. Twenty cultivarswere investigated including 16 local cultivars and 4 improved cultivars. Heading date, flowering date and seedling growth stage of Zadoks92 were recorded on the field. The spikes were harvested at Zadoksstage 92 and the seeds moisture content was measured immediately after harvesting.Two methods were used to evaluate pre-harvest sprouting including sprouting score and sprouting index under laboratory condition. The studied traits were as follows: seed dormancy, after ripening period, α-amylase activity and embryo protein levels under laboratory conditions. In both methods, high resistance to sprouting on the spike was observed in cultivars with high levels of seed dormancy.Significant differencesamong studied cultivars were observed forphenological, physiologicalandbiochemical characteristics of rice grain.Meanwhile, there were significant positive correlations between sprouting score, and sprouting index with α-amylase activity, there were significant negative correlationbetween these two traits with seed dormancy index (dormancy severity) and after-ripening regression coefficient (dormancyduration). Significant differencesfor protein content ofseed embryo between dormant and non-dormant seeds inthe earliest stages ofwater absorption under heattreatments were determined. Cultivars classified into three groups based on cluster analysis. Our findings provide further evidence of appropriate genetic diversity among cultivars in the case ofstudied traits that underscore the importance to use in breeding programs for resistance to pre-harvestsprouting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • α-Amylase
  • Protein
  • Seed dormancy
  • Sprouting Index
  • Sprouting Score
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