ارزیابی تولید علوفه در کشت مخلوط ذرت: سویا و ارزن مرواریدی: سویا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده ی علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده ی علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور یافتن جایگزینی برای کشت خالص تابستانه‌ی ذرت علوفه‌ای (Zea mays)، سیستمهای کشت مخلوط ارزن مرواریدی (Pennisetum glaucum): سویا (Glycine max) (P:G) و ذرت: سویا (Z:G) و آرایشهای کشت جایگزینی (XXG، XXGG و XGG) و افزایشی (X%100G%25، X%100G%50 و X%83G%67) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی طی سالهای 1391 و 1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، در کرج بررسی شد (G و X بترتیب: سویا و گیاه غلات شامل ذرت، Z یا ارزن، P). نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد علوفه‌ی غلات و علوفه‌ی مخلوط در Z:G از P:G به میزان چشمگیری بیشتر بود. غلات در کشت مخلوط جزء غالب بودند و غالبیت ذرت بیشتر از ارزن بود. سیستم و آرایش کشت مخلوط بر کل نسبت برابری زمین (LER) اثر معنی‌داری نداشت. بیشترین LER، 1.15 در P%100G%25 سال 1392 و 1.07 در Z%83G%67 سال 1393 بدون احتساب چین دوم ارزن و 1.10 در PGG با داده های مجموع دو چین ارزن در سال 1393 ثبت شد. در X%83G%67، با وجود تراکم 83 درصد غلات نسبت به کشت خالص، LER برای ذرت 0.95 ولی برای ارزن 0.70 بود. در جمع‌بندی کلی، آرایشهای افزایشی با درصد کمی سویا و یا با کاهش مختصری در سهم غلات، برای نیل به مقادیر بالاتر LER پتانسیل بیشتری داشتند. از این رو کشت مخلوط، بویژه آرایش افزایشی، میتواند جایگزین‌هایی مناسب برای کشت خالص در تولید علوفه با کیفیت دلخواه و افزایش تنوع در اکوسیستم و همسو با پایداری فراهم نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of forage production in maize-soybean and pearl millet-soybean intercroppings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hosseini 1
  • َAhmad Sobati 2
  • Mostafa Oveisi 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to find an alternative to summer monoculture forage maize (Zea mays), intercropping systems of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum): soybean (Glycine max) (P:G) and maize: soybean (Z:G) and intercropping patterns, substitutive (XXG, XXGG and XGG) and additive (X%100G%25, X%100G%50 and X%83G%67) were evaluated as factorial in RCBD at research field of Agriculture and Natural Resources College of Tehran University in Karaj during 2013 and 2014 (G and X respectively: soybean and cereal including maize, Z, or pearl millet, P). Results showed that yields of cereal forage and mixed forage in Z:G were significantly higher than P:G. Cereals were dominant component in intercrop and the dominance of maize was higher than millet. Intercropping system or pattern did not affect total land equivalent ratio (LER).The highest LER was recorded 1.15 by P%100G%25 in 2013 and 1.07 by Z%83G%67 in 2014 without 2nd cut of pearl millet, and 1.10 by PGG in 2014 with sum of 2 cuts of pearl millet. In X%83G%67 despite the 83% cereal density of monoculture, partial LER was 0.95 for maize but 0.70 for pearl millet. It is concluded that additive patterns with a small ratios of soybean or with some decrease in ratios of cereal component, tend to have potential to achieve higher LERs. Thus intercropping, specially additive pattern can provide suitable alternatives to monoculture in production of forage with customized quality and higher diversity in ecosystem, in consistent with sustainability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • partial LER
  • intercropping pattern
  • additive
  • substitutive
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