تأثیر مدیریت آبیاری با آب شور بر برخی صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک هیبرید ذرت 704

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد د دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 عضو هیئت علمی

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر سه روش آبیاری شامل سطحی (I1)، بارانی (I2) و بارانی همراه با شستشوی برگ‌ها (I3)، و سطوح مختلف شوری معادل 9/2 (شاهد)، 5/3، 1/4 و 7/4 و 3/5 دسی زیمنس بر متر بر عملکرد دانه و برخی صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک ذرت، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1392 در دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز اجرا شد. برای اعمال شوری از روش آبیاری بارانی با ایجاد سطوح شوری حداقل و حداکثر روی دو خط لوله موازی در طرفین مزرعه استفاده شد، به طوری که هم پوشانی آبپاش‌ها منجر به ایجاد شیب خطی شوری شد. روش آبیاری I3و I2به ترتیب با 4750 و 4160 کیلوگرم در هکتار دارای بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه بود. افزایش شوری آب باعث کاهش معنی دار هدایت روزنه‌ای، شاخص کلروفیل، شاخص سطح برگ، غلظت پتاسیم و نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم برگ شد و مقادیر کاهش این صفات در آبیاری بارانی بیشتر بود. گیاهان تحت تیمار آبیاری بارانی و سطحی به ترتیب با میانگین 2/18 و 1/15 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم وزن خشک دارای بیشترین و کمترین غلظت یون سدیم بودند. براساس یافته‌های این پژوهش، مقادیر آستانۀ شوری آب برای بیشتر صفات و در هر سه روش آبیاری در حدود 1/4 دسی زیمنس بر متر شناخته شد. با توجه به محدودیت و شور و نیمه شور بودن منابع آبی کشور، شاید بتوان از روش آبیاری بارانی همراه با شستشوی برگ‌هابرای محصولات ردیفی مانند ذرت با حداقل کاهش عملکرد دانه استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of irrigation management with saline water on some agronomic and physiological traits of maize hybrid 704

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ghahramani Pirsalami 1
  • Afrasyab Rahnama 2
  • Muhammad Reza Siahpoosh 3
  • Saeed Boromand Nasab 3
1 MSc student, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Faculty member, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of three irrigation methods including surface irrigation (I1), daily sprinkler irrigation (I2), post-irrigation sprinkling with fresh water (I3), and different levels of salinity including 2.9 (control), 3.5, 4.1, 4.7 and 5.3 dS.m-1 on agronomic and physiological traits of maize, a field experiment as factorial was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2013-2014 in College of Irrigation science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. To apply salinity, a sprinkler irrigation system was used to establish minimum and maximum salinity levels on two parallel pipelines on both sides of field. Overlapping sprinklers led to establish a linear salinity gradient. Irrigation methods I3 and I2 with 4750 and 4160 kg h-1 had higher and lower amounts of grain yield, respectively. Water salinity significantly decreased stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index, leaf area index, K+ concentration and ratio of potassium to sodium, and higher reductions in these traits was observed in sprinkler irrigation. Daily sprinkler irrigation and surface irrigation showed the higher and lower Na+ concentration, 18.2 and 15.1 mg kg-1, respectively. These findings showed that, the threshold value of salinity for most traits and all irrigation methods was found to be ~4.1 dS.m-1. With the given water resources limataion and saline water resources in Iran, post-irrigation sprinkling with fresh water might be used for irrigating row crops such as maize with a lower yeild loss.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar absorption
  • Sprinkler irrigation
  • Surface irrigation
  • sodium
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