بررسی تأثیر کود نیتروژن و تراکم در سطوح غیرمعمول بر ویژگی‌‌های رشدی عملکرد دانه و علوفۀ ذرت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

این آزمایش در سال 1394 به­صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. نیتروژن در پنج سطح (0، 150، 300، 450، 600 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و تراکم در سه سطح (10، 15 و20 بوته در مترمربع) به ترتیب عامل اصلی و فرعی آزمایش بودند. بنابر نتایج، بیشینه شاخص سطح برگ با کاربرد 450 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به دست آمد. کمترین سرعت رشد محصول در شرایط بدون کاربرد و بیشترین میزان این شاخص با کاربرد 450 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به دست آمد. صرف­نظر از تراکم کشت، ارتفاع بوتۀ ذرت در نتیجه افزایش کاربرد نیتروژن تا سطح 450 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­طور معنی­داری افزایش و پس از آن با افزایش نیتروژن به سطح 600 کیلوگرم در هکتار، به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. بیشینه شاخص سطح برگ (معادل 32/6 واحد) و تجمع مادۀ خشک (3623 گرم بر مترمربع زمین در روز) در تراکم بیست بوته در مترمربع به دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه (68/72 تن در هکتار) در تیمار 450 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار با تراکم بیست بوته در مترمربع و بیشترین عملکرد دانه (76/10 تن در هکتار) در تیمار 450 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار با تراکم ده بوته در مترمربع مشاهده شد. به نظر می­رسد به­رغم اثر سوء زیست‌محیطی ناشی از کاربرد بالای نیتروژن، کاربرد آن تا سطح 450 کیلوگرم در هکتار همراه با تراکم خیلی بالا، عملکرد علوفه را افزایش خواهد داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of nitrogen fertilizer and density unusual levels on plant growth characteristics, grain and forage yields of maize

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Heidari pour 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mohallati 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Agro Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

the experimental was conducted as a split in 20015 in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Nitrogen in five levels (0, 150, 300, 450, 600 kg per hectare) and density at three levels (10, 15 and 20 plants per square meter), respectively, of primary and secondary, respectively. As a result, the maximum leaf area index was achieved by consumption of 450 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The lowest growth rate in terms of consumption and the highest figure obtained by applying 450 kg N per hectare. The highest LAI (6.32 unit) and dry matter accumulation (3623 g m-2 day-1) were observed on account of 20 Plant m-2. Irrespective of the plant density, height of corn significantly increased when nitrogen was applied by 450 kg ha-1; however, more nitrogen application had a negative effect on mentioned trait. The highest yield (72.68 tons per hectare) in treatment 450 kg nitrogen per hectare with 20 plants per square meter and the highest grain yield of (10.76 tons per hectare) in treatment 450 kg N ha-1 at a density of 10 plants per meter square was observed. It seems that despite the environmental impacts resulting from the use of nitrogen application up to 450 kg per hectare with a very high density, yield will increase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forage yield
  • Grain yield
  • maize
  • nitrogen fertilizer
  • Plant density
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