تأثیر تاریخ‎ و روش‎ کاشت بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.) در شرایط کاربرد کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر همزمان تاریخ‎ و روش‎ کاشت و کاربرد نهاده‎های بوم‌شناختی یا بوم‎سازگار بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گاوزبان ایرانی، پژوهشی در سه سال زراعی متوالی 91-1390، 92-1391 و 93-1392 در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد‌شده در زمان در قالب طرح پایۀ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. دو تاریخ کاشت (20 اسفندماه 1390 و 15 فروردین‌ماه 1391) در کرت‌های اصلی، سه نوع کود زیستی و شیمیایی قارچریشه یا میکوریزا (حاوی قارچ Glomus mosseae)، بیوسولفور (حاوی باکتری­های Thiobacillus spp.)، کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و شاهد) در کرت‌های فرعی، دو نوع روش کاشت (بذرکاری مستقیم و نشاکاری) در کرت‌های فرعی‌فرعی و زمان (سال زراعی دوم و سوم) در کرت­های فرعی­فرعی­فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد، بیشترین عملکرد گل خشک در شرایط کاربرد قارچ ریشهدر تاریخ کاشت اسفند و در روش بذرکاری به دست آمد. کاربرد کودهای زیستی (بیولوژیک) و شیمیایی در هر دو تاریخ و هر دو روش کاشت افزایش عملکرد دانه را نسبت به شاهد سبب شدند، به‌طوری‌که کاربرد کودهای قارچ ریشه، بیوسولفور و شیمیایی در شرایط نشاکاری در تاریخ کاشت اسفند به­ترتیب منجر به افزایش 45، 42 و 35 درصدی عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با شاهد شد. به‌طورکلی با توجه به یافته‎های این پژوهش به نظر می‎رسد کشت بذری گاوزبان ایرانی در اسفندماه و کاربرد نهاده‎های بوم‌شناختی (اکولوژیکی) به‌ویژه قارچریشه و بیوسولفور در شرایط مشهد نسبت به دیگر تیمارها برتری داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting date and method on yield and yield components of Echium amoenum under bio and chemical fertilizers application

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Behzad Amiri 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Mohsen Jahan 3
1 Assistant Professor, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluation of simultaneous effects of planting dates and methods and ecofriendly inputs application on yield and yield components of Iranian Ox-Tangue (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.), a split split plots experiment in time based on randomized complete block  design with three replications was conducted in 2011-2014 growing seasons, in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Two different planting dates (10 March 2011 and 4 Aprill 2011), three different types of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers (mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae), Biosulfur, chemical fertilizer and control), two different types of planting methods (direct seeding and transplanting) and two agronomic year assigned to main plots, sub plots, sub-sub plots, sub-sub-sub plots, respectively. The results showed that the highest dry flower yield obtained in March planting date and seeding method and in conditions of mycorrhiza application. Application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers in both of planting dates and both of planting methods increased seed yield, so that application of mycorrhiza, biosulfur and chemical fertilizer in transplanting planting method and Aprill planting date increased seed yield 45, 42 and 35% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results of this research, it seems direct seeding of Echium amoenum in March and application of ecological inputs especially mycorrhiza and biosulfur in Mashhad conditions is better than other treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizers
  • biosulfur
  • eco-friendly inputs
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Seeding
Abdul Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R. & Panneerselvam, R. (2007). Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomass yield in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 60, 7-11.
Anandham, R., Sridar, R., Nalayini, P., Poonguzhali, S., Madhaiyan, M. & Tongmin, S. (2007). Potential for plant growth promotion in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. ALR-2 by co-inoculation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and Rhizobium. Microbiological Research, 162, 139-153.
Azimi, R., Jangjoo, M. & Asghari, H. R. (2013). Effect of mycorrhiza on initial deployment and morphological characteristics of Thymus vulgaris in conditions of natural area. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 11, 666-676. (in Farsi)
Babayee, P., Golchin, A., Besharati, H. & Afzali, M. (2012). Effect of microbial sulfur fertilizer on nutrient uptake and yield of soybean in the field. Journal of Soil and Water Science, 26, 145-152. (in Farsi)
Besharati, H., Khavarzi, K. & Malakooti, J. (2000). Efffect of Thiobacillus on nutrient absorbtion in calcareous soils. Journal of Soil and Water Research, 176-187. (in Farsi)
Cardoso, I. M. & Kuyper, T. W. (2006). Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 116, 72-84.
Davazdahemami, S., Sefidkon, F., Jahansooz, M. R. & Mazaheri, D. (2008). Comparison of biological yield, quantity and quality yield of oil and phonological stages in fall, spring and summer planting of Dracocephalum muldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Researches, 24, 263-270. (in Farsi)
Dehghani Meshkani, M. R., Naghdibadi, H. A., Darzi, M. T., Mehrafarin, A. & Rezazadeh, Sh. A. (2011). Effect of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of Matricaria recutita L. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10, 35-49. (in Farsi)
Eskandari Nasrabadi, S., Ghorbani, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. & Nasiri Mahallati, M. (2014). Single and integrated effects of biological, organic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative traits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.). Journal of Agroecology, 6, 467-476. (in Farsi)
Ghani, A., Tehranifar, A., Azizi, M. & Ebadi, M. T. (2011). Effect of planting date on morphological characteristics and yield and oil content of Achillea millefolium in conditions of Mashhad. Journal of Crop Sciences, 9, 447-453. (in Farsi)
Ghasemi, A. (2009). Medicinal and aromatic plants, identifying and studying their effects. Publications of Islamic Azad University, Shahrkord. (in Farsi)
Ghasemi, K., Fallah, S., Raeesi, F. & Heidari, M. (2013). Effect of urea fertilizer and biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitiative yield of Plantago ovate Forsk.). Journal of Plant Production Research, 101-116. (in Farsi)
Ghorbani, M., Koocheki, A., Jahani, M., Hoseini, A., Mohammadabadi, A. & Sabet Teimoori, M. (2009). Effect of planting date and different times and methods of weed management in different growth stages on yield and yield components of cumin. Journal of Crop Sciences, 7, 145-154. (in Farsi)
Ghorbani Nasrabadi, R., Saleh Rastin, N. & Alikhani, H. (2002). Effect of sulfur application with Thiobacillus and Bradi rhizobium on nitrogen fixation and growth characteristics of soybean. Journal of Soil and Water, 16, 170-178. (in Farsi)
Hoseini, S. A. (2011). Planting methods of Humulus Lupulus L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27, 615-623. (in Farsi)
Jahan, M., Amiri, M. B. & Ehyaee, H. R. (2012). Light use and absorption efficiency of sesame affected by biofertilizers in a low input farming systems. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10, 435-447. (in Farsi)
Jahan, M., Ariayee, M., Amiri, M. B. & Ehyaee, H. R. (2013). Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on quantitave and qualitative of sesame in conditions of cover crop application. Agroecology, 5, 1-15. (in Farsi)
Kariminia, A. & Shahrestani, M. (2003). Evaluation of oxidation of sulfur by heterotrophic microorganisms in different soil. Journal of Soil and Water, 17, 69-79. (in Farsi)
Kertesz, M. A. & Mirleau, K. (2004). The role of soil microbes in plant sulfur nutrition. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 1-7.
Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M. & Ghorbani, R. (2011). Effects of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8, 758-766. (in Farsi)
Koocheki, A., Nakhforoosh, A. & Zarifketabi, H. (1997). Organic farming. Publications of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (in Farsi)
Mehrabani, M., Ghassemi, N., Sajjadi, S. E., Ghannadi, A. & Shams-Ardakani, M. (2005). Main phenolic compounds of petals of Echium amoenum fisch. And C.A. Mey., a famous medicinal plant of Iran. Daru, 13, 65-69.
Mellati, F., Koocheki, A. & Nassiri Mahallati, M. (2005). Evaluation of germination behavior and planting date on medicinal plant of Ferula gumosa. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 3, 123-128. (in Farsi)
Najafpoor Navaee, M. (2002). Evaluation of effect of phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers on seed yield of Echium amoenum. Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants, 13, 41-50. (in Farsi)  
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Amiri, M. B. & Ehyaee, H. R. (2015). Effect of simultaneous application of mycorrhiza with compost, vermicompost and sulfural geranole on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in a low input cropping system. Agroecology, In Press. (in Farsi)
Salardini, A. A. (1995). Soil fertility. Publications of Tehran University. (in Farsi)
Sayyah, M., Boostani, H., Pakseresht, S. & Malaieri, A. (2009). Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 33, 1513-1516.
Scherer, H. W. (2001). Sulfur in crop production-invited paper. European Journal of Agronomy, 14, 81-111.
Tabrizi, L. (2007). Evaluation of ecophysical characteristics of Thymus transcaspicus in natural areas and domestication of it in a low input farming system. Ph.D thesis of Ecology, Faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (in Farsi)
Vance, C. P., Uhde-Stone, C. & Allan, D. L. (2003). Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical adaptation by plants for securing a non-renewable resource. New Physiology, 157, 423-447.
Zapata, F. & Roy, R. N. (2004). Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture. Publication of the FAO Land and Water Development Division.Pp, 117 - 122.
Zhu, C. X., Song, B. F. & Xu, W. H. (2010). Arbuscular mycorrhizae improve low temperature stress in maize via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Plant and Soil, 331, 129-137.