ارزیابی تأثیر مدیریت کاربرد نیتروژن بر تحمل به تنش خشکی و کارایی استفاده از آب باران در گندم دیم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کردستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، سنندج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه خاکشناسی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مدیریت کاربرد نیتروژن بر تحمل به تنـش خشکی در گندم دیم، دو آزمایش جداگانه و همزمان در شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی با سه زمان کاربرد شامل T1- کل نیتروژن در پاییز T2- دوسوم نیتروژن در پاییز و یک‌سوم در بهار T3- یک‌دوم نیتروژن در پاییز و یک‌دوم در بهار به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و با پنج سطح نیتروژن شامل 0، 30، 60، 90 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره به‌عنوان کرت فرعی با سه تکرار در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به‌صورت کرت‌های یک­بار خردشده در دو سال زراعی 92-1391 و 93-1392 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم قاملو (کردستان) اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد، که با مصرف نیتروژن، تحمل به تنش خشکی در گندم دیم افزایش یافت. کاربرد نیتروژن، کارایی استفاده از آب باران، کارایی زراعی نیتروژن و تحمل به تنش خشکی را در گندم دیم افزایش داد. کاربرد 60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن در پاییز (بدون تقسیط) با بیشترین عملکرد دانه، کارایی زراعی نیتروژن و آب باران و شاخص STI، بهترین تیمار در تحمل به تنش خشکی گندم دیم بود. بین غلظت­های نیتروژن و پتاسیم در برگ، رابطۀ هم‌افزایی (سینرژیستی) برقرار بود. این موضوع نیز مؤید افزایش تحمل به تنش خشکی گندم دیم با مدیریت بهینۀ نیتروژن بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of nitrogen application management on drought tolerance and water use efficiency of rain in rainfed wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hossein Sedri 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Vali Fieziaslasl 3
  • Adel Sioseh-Mardeh 4
1 Assistant Professor of Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural, University of Kurdistan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of rates and timing of nitrogen application on grain yield, drought tolerance (DT) and water use efficiency of rain (WUE) in rainfed wheat, two experiments were carried out including rainfed and suplimentalirrigation conditions.Treatments were different rates of nitrogen consist of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha-1 as sub-plots and time of nitrogen application included T1- total in the fall, T2- 2/3 in the fall + 1/2 in the spring and T3- 2/3 in the fall + 1/3 in the spring as main-plots with three replications in splitplot test as randomized complete block design in Kurdistan province during (2012-2014). The results showed that application of nitrogen was increased drought tolerance of wheat rainfed. Nitrogen increased water use efficiency (WUE) of rain, nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) and DT of rainfed wheat. Fall application of 60 kg N.ha-1 had the highest grain yield, NAE, WUE and STI index and was the best treatment with respect to DT. There was synergistic relationship between N and K concentrations in leaf. This is could be confirmed increasing of DT of rainfed wheat by nitrogen optimized management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • nitrogen agronomic efficiency
  • urea
  • water use efficiency of rain
  • Wheat
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