تأثیر مدیریت پسماندها و نظام خاک‌ورزی بر تجمع و انتقال دوبارۀ مواد نورساختی درگندم (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهرود

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهرود

3 استاد، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مشهد


به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و مدیریت پسماندها (بقایا) بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی گندم، آزمایشی در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-92 انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل شیوه‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی در سه سطح (خاک‌ورزی متداول، خاک‌ورزی کم و بدون خاک‌ورزی) و عامل فرعی شامل مدیریت پسماندها در سه سطح (حفظ 0، 30 و 60 درصد پسماندها) بود. طول ساقه، سنبله، دمگل (پدانکل)، طول، سطح و وزن خشک برگ پرچم اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین مقادیر صفات یادشده در تیمار بدون خاک‌ورزی به دست آمد که به ترتیب معادل 18/91، 04/10، 37/28، 48/22 سانتی‌متر، 3/26 سانتی‌متر مربع و 194/0 گرم بود. اما در مدیریت پسماندها، هیچ‌کدام از صفات یادشده تفاوت معنی‌داری را نشان ندادند. تأثیر نظام خاک‌ورزی و مدیریت پسماندها بر مادۀ خشک انتقال‌یافته از ساقه، اختصاص مواد نورساختی (فتوسنتزی) به سنبله، مشارکت مواد پروردۀ (اسیمیلات‌های) ذخیره‌ای پیش از گرده‌افشانی در پر شدن دانه و بازدۀ انتقال دوباره معنی‌دار نبود. اثر متقابل نظام خاک‌ورزی و مدیریت پسماندها بر طول ساقه معنی‌دار شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در نظام بدون خاک‌ورزی (2/6912 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در پسماندهای 60 درصد (8/6980 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. آزمایش نشان داد خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی همراه با حفظ پسماندهای بیشتر روی سطح خاک موجب بهبود برخی از صفات زراعی و عملکرد گندم می‌شود و راه‌کاری برای احیاء منابع و پایداری در تولید است.



عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of residue management and tillage system on accumulation and remobilization of assimilates in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Fallahheravi 1
  • Hamid Abbasdokht 2
  • Ahmad Zarea Feizabadi 3
  • Ahmad Gholami 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shahrood, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shahrood, Iran
3 Professor, Research Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage methods and residue management on physiological properties of wheat at Mashhad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research center of Khorasan Razavi province in 2013-2014. This experiment was arranged in a split plot design based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main factor was tillage systems in three levels (conventional, reduced and no tillage) and sub factor was residue management in three levels (0, 30 and 60%). Length of stem, spike, peduncle, penultimate, length, weight and area of flag leaf were measured. The results showed that tillage systems had significant effect on them. The highest length of stem (91.18 cm), length of spike (10.04 cm), length of peduncle (28.37cm), length, weight and area of flag leaf (22.48 cm, 0.194g, 26.3cm2) were obtained from no-tillage method. Residue management had no significant effect on these treatments. The results showed that tillage systems and residue management had no significant effect on, dry matter transferred from the stem, partitioning assimilates to spike, present of assimilates participation storage before anthesis in seed filling, remobilization efficiency.  Interaction effect tillage system and residue management had significant effect on length of stem. The highest grain yields were obtained under no-till (6912.2 kg/ha) and 60% residue treatment (6980.8 kg/ha). It is concluded that conservation tillage with more residue aboveground could improve wheat yield and some of agronomic properties and so way to revive the resources and stability of the product.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Assimilates
  • Conservation
  • Grain yield
  • no-tillage
  • stem
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