بررسی اثر جهش ژنتیکی پرتوهای لیزر روی صفات زراعی و DNA در نخود زراعی (Cicer arietinum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ولیعصر(عج) رفسنجان

2 استاد، گروه ژنتیک و تولید گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولیعصر(عج) رفسنجان

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استادیار گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه ولیعصر(عج) رفسنجان

چکیده

تنوعی که در موجودات زنده اعم از گیاه و جانور وجود دارد ناشی از جهش (موتاسیون­)های طبیعی در سطح DNA و درپی نوترکیبی و انتخاب است که در طی میلیون­ها سال رخ داده است. هدف از انجام این آزمایش بررسی امکان ایجاد تغییر ژنتیکی در گیاه نخود با استفاده از پرتوهای لیزر است. پرتوهای لیزر با نفوذپذیری بالایی که دارند باعث ایجاد تغییرات ریخت‌شناختی (مرفولوژیک) و فیزیولوژیک در گیاهان می­شوند. در این آزمایش پرتوهای لیزر YAGND: با طول‌موج 530 نانومتر، لیزر هلیوم نئون با طول‌موج 632 و لیزر UV با طول‌موج 308 نانومتر در مدت‌زمان‌های مختلف روی بذر نخود رقم ILC­482 به‌کار برده شد. پس از پرتوتابی و کاشت بذرها (M1)، تا زمان برداشت صفات: روز تا جوانه­زنی، گلدهی و غلاف­دهی، درصد جوانه‌زنی، شمار ساقه­های دارای غلاف، شمار کل غلاف­ها، شمار غلاف­های خالی و پر، شمار بذر در بوته، وزن صددانه، ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک بوته و عملکرد دانه اندازه­گیری شد. بذرهای تولیدی از تیمارهای پرتوتابی‌شده همراه با شاهد در نسل بعد (M2) کشت و صفات بالا دوباره اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج در نسل اول نشان داد، در سه صفت (ارتفاع بوته، شمار غلاف­های خالی و وزن خشک) تفاوتی بین شاهد و تیمارهای پرتوتابی شده وجود نداشت. اما در دیگر صفات در تیمارهای مختلف تغییراتی نسبت به شاهد در نسل اول و دوم به­وجود آمد. به‌طورکلی پرتوتابی موجب کاهش میزان صفات نسبت به شاهد شد. در ضمن بررسی‌های مولکولی رخداد جهش را در سطح DNA توسط اشعۀ لیزر اثبات کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mutagenesis of laser radiation on DNA and agronomic traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maliheh Usefi 1
  • Hossein Dashti 2
  • Mohammadreza Bihamta 3
  • Mohammad Khanzadeh 4
1 M.Sc. student of Plant Breeding , Vali-e-Asr university of Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Genetics & Plant Production, Vali-e-Asr university of Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Professor of Plant Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agricuture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr university of Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The variation that exists within living plants and animals, is the result of natural mutation at the DNA level, with subsequent recombination and selection occurring, much of it over millions of years. The aim of this study is to create genetic changes in chick pea plants using laser radiation. Laser radiation can cause changes (morphological and physiological) in plants with their high permeability. In this experiment, laser lights: ND:YAG with a wavelength of 530 nm, helium-neon laser with a wavelength of 632 and UV laser with a wavelength 308 nm were used on seed of “ILC482” variety of chickpea. After irradiation and planting the seeds (m1), characters: days to germination, days to flowering and podding, percent of germination, total number of pods, number of stem, number of empty and full pods, number of seeds , 100 KW weight, plant height, plant dry weight and grain yield per plant were measured. M1 seeds and control were planted in the next generation (M2) and above traits were measured. At the first generation the results showed that in the three traits (height, number of empty pods and dry weight) there is no difference between treatments. But in other characters, the treatments were differed in compared to control at first and second generation. In general, radiation reduced the characters in comparison to control. Molecular analysis confirmed the mutations occurred in DNA by the laser radiation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea
  • DNA
  • Laser
  • mutation
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