تعیین ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی و خصوصی برای عملکرد علوفه و صفات زراعی یونجه (Medicago sativa L.) در تلاقی دی‌آلل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 استاد، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر، کرج

چکیده

از جمله مهم‌ترین هدف‌های برنامه‌های بهنژادی یونجه، بهبود عملکرد علوفه و اجزای آن است. هشت تودۀ محلی یا بوم‌جور (اکوتیپ) و رقم یونجه از مناطق مختلف آب و هوایی ایران و یک رقم خارجی برای بررسی ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی و خصوصی از نظر صفات، عملکرد علوفۀ خشک، ارتفاع، شمار ساقه، سرعت رشد دوباره و نسبت برگ به ساقه در یک طرح دی آلل 9 × 9 یک‌سویه بررسی شدند. در پاییز سال 1392، 36 دورگ F1 به همراه نه والد آن‌ها در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر کرج کشت شدند. نتایج تجزیه‌وتحلیل دی‌آلل بر پایۀ روش دو از مدل B گریفینگ برای دو سال زراعی آزمایش (1394-1392) نشان داد، تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر اثر ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی و خصوصی برای همۀ صفات وجود دارد. همچنین اثر متقابل ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی و خصوصی با سال برای صفت عملکرد مادۀ خشک و اثر متقابل ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی با محیط برای صفت نسبت برگ به ساقه مشاهده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد، دورگ (هیبرید)‌های قهاوند × نیک‌شهری و مهاجران × ‌سیلوانه ترکیب‌پذیری خصوصی مثبت و معنی‌داری برای عملکرد مادۀ خشک علوفه و سرعت رشد دوباره دارند. درحالی‌که دورگ کوزره × یزدی افزون بر صفات عملکرد مادۀ خشک، ارتفاع و سرعت رشد دوباره، برای صفت نسبت برگ به ساقه نیز ترکیب‌پذیری خصوصی مثبت و معنی‌داری نشان داد. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد، امکان بهبود عملکرد یونجه و دیگر صفات از راه تلاقی‌ بین بوم‌جور‌های یونجه وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of general and specific combining abilities for forage yield and agronomic traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) dialell crosses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vida Ghotbi 1
  • Hamid Dehghani 2
  • Rajab Choucan 3
  • Ahmad Moeini 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Breeding, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The most important purpose of alfalfa breeding programs is forage yield improvement. The objective of this study was to determine general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of alfalfa forage dry matter yield, plant height, number of stem, regrowth rate and leaf to stem ratio. A half diallel crosses (9×9) was performed by eight alfalfa ecotypes from different climatic regions of Iran and one cultivar from America. Experimental field was established in early autumn of 2013 which included 36 F1 hybrids with nine of their parents in a complete block design with three replications at Plant and Seed Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The results of diallel analysis for two growth seasons (2014-2015) indicated high significant variation among crosses, GCA and SCA effects. Interactions of GCA and SCA with environment were significant for forage dry matter yield. The hybrids of Ghahavand × Nikshahri and Mohajeran × silvana indicated positive significant SCA for forage dry matter yield and regrowth, while, the hybrid of Kozare × Yazdi exhibited positive SCA for forage dry matter yield, plant height, re-growth rate and also leaf to stem ratio. This study indicated that the possibility of improvement forage yield and other agronomic traits through crosses among alfalfa ecotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alfalfa
  • Agronomical traits
  • diallel
  • GCA
  • SCA
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