تأثیر پیش‌تیمار بذر و تیمار‌های آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد نخود (ژنوتیپ هاشم) در دو کاشت پاییزه و بهاره در شمال لرستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر پیش‌تیمار بذر و تیمار آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد نخود ژنوتیپ هاشم آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در دو تاریخ کاشت بهاره و پاییزه در نورآباد-لرستان اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل چهار تیمار آبیاری (بدون آبیاری، 75، 100 و 150 میلی‌متر) بر پایة تبخیر از تشت تبخیر کلاس Aو عامل فرعی شامل دو پیش‌تیمار، پرایمینگ (شاهد، ده ساعت پیش‌تیمار) بود. کاشت پاییزه به ترتیب سبب افزایش 9/41، 4/7، 4/3، 5/32، 6/43، 9/62 و 7/13 درصدی شمار نیام بارور، ارتفاع بوته، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانة تک بوته، عملکرد زیست‌توده یا زیستی (بیولوژیک)، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت نسبت به کاشت بهاره شد. سطوح آبیاری پس از 75، 100 و 150 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر به ترتیب با میانگین 2296، 2044 و 1775 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش 4/75، 1/56 و 5/35 درصدی در عملکرد دانه نسبت به سطح بدون آبیاری (1309 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را نشان دادند. پیش‌تیمار بذر افزایش 5/8 درصدی عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد را نشان داد. می‌توان استنباط کرد که کاشت پاییزه به همراه آبیاری پس از 75 میلی‌متر تبخیر برای دستیابی به بیشترین عملکرد ژنوتیپ هاشم در شمال لرستان مناسب است و اعمال پیش‌تیمار بذر نیز می‌تواند سبب بهبود عملکرد دانه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of seed priming and irrigation regimes on grain yield and components of spring and autumn-sown Hashem chickpea genotype in northern Lorestan, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Gholami Zali 1
  • Parviz Ehsanzadeh 2
  • Jamshid Razmjoo 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Associate Professor and Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of irrigation regimes, planting season and seed priming on grain yield and components of Hashem genotype of chickpea in Nurabad, northern Lorestan, two 3-replicate split-plot field experiments, one autumn- and the other spring-sown, were conducted. The primed and non-primed seeds (subplots) of this chickpea genotype were sown in autumn and spring and subjected to four irrigation levels (i.e. irrigation after 75, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from a Class-A Pan and no irrigation). Autumn-sown chickpea out-performed the spring-sown chickpea by 41.9, 7.4, 3.4, 32.5, 43.6, 62.9, and 13.7% in terms of pods/plant, plant height, 100-seed weight, seed weight/plant, dry matter and grain yield and harvest index, respectively. Irrigation after 75 (2296 kg/ha), 100 (2044 kg/ha) and 150 mm evaporation (1775 kg/ha) led to 75.4, 56.1 and 35.5% increases in grain yield, respectively, relative to the no irrigation condition (1309 kg/ha). Seed priming led to 8.5% increase in grain yield, averaged over planting seasons and irrigation levels. It could be concluded that while seed priming enhances grain yield, planting genotype Hashem in autumn along with irrigation after 75 mm evaporation may lead to notable increase in its grain yield in the northern regions of Lorestan.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autumn chickpea
  • Drought stress
  • Priming
Anonymous. (2014). National Agriculture Statistics of Iran, Lorestan Province. Office of Statistics and Information Technology, Ministry of Agriculture.
Al-Mudaris, M. A. & Jutzi, S. C. (1999). The influence of fertilizer-based seed priming treatments on emergence and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor and Pennisetum glaucum in pot trials under greenhouse conditions. Journal Agronomy & Crop Science, 182, 135-141.
Amanullah, A., AliKhan, K., Nawab, N. & Sohail, Q. (2006). Performance of promising common bean germplasm at Kalam-Swat. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9, 2642-2646.
Anyia, A.O. & Herzog, H. (2004). Water-use efficiency, leaf area and leaf gas exchange of cowpeas under mid-season drought. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 327-339.
Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., Tabassum, R. & Ahmed, N. (2006). Evolution of seed vigor enhancement techniques on physiological and biochemical basis in coarse rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 34, 719-728.
Ehsanzadeh, P., Bahari, M., Pahlavani, R. & Akbari, N. (2005). Growth and productivity of dryland chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under varying levels of Fe and Cu in Aligoodarz-Azna region, Lorestan. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 12 (5), 190-200. (in Farsi)
Fateh, H., Siosemardeh, A. & Karimpoor, M. (2010). Effects of seed priming and sowing date on antioxidant enzymes activity and yield of chickpea under dryland condition, Technology of Plant Products, 10(2), 1-16. (in Farsi)
Finch-Savage, W.E., Dent, K.C. & Clark, L.J. (2004). Soak conditions temperature following sowing influence the response of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds to on-farm priming core-sowing seed soak. Field Crops Research, 90, 361-374.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2012). Biodiversity: Agricultural biodiversity in FAO. Retrieved 2012, from: http://www.fao.org/biodiversity.
Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Sheikhzadeh-Mosaddegh, P. & Valizadeh, M. (2008). Effects of hydropriming duration and limited irrigation on field performance of chickpea. Research Journal of Seed Science, 1, 34-40.
Harris, D., Pathan, A.K., Gothkar, P., Joshi, A., Chivasa, W. & Nyamudeza, P. (2001). On-farm seed priming: using participatory methods revive and refine a key technology. Agricultural System, 69, 151-164.
Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Basra, S. M. A. & Ahmad, N. (2006). Influence of seed priming techniques on the seedling establishment, yield and quality of hybrid sunflower. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8, 14-18.
Jalota, S.K., Sood, A. & Harman, W.L. (2006). Assessing the response of chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.) yield to irrigation water on two soils in Punjab (India): A simulation analysis using the CROPMAN model. Agricultural Water Management, 79, 312-320.
Kanouni, H., Kazemi Arbat, H., Moghaddam, M. & Neyshabouri, M.R. (2002). Selection of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) entries for drought resistance. Agricultural Science, 12(2), 109-123. (in Farsi)
Kaur, S., Gupta, A. K. & Kaur, N. (2005). Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. Journal Agronomy & Crop Science, 191, 81-87.
Khan, A. A. (1992). Preplant physiological seed conditioning. Horticultural Review, 13, 131-181.
Kobrai, S., Shams, S. & Pazaki, A. (2010). Effect of cultivar and sowing date on grain yield and quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 6(2), 53-63. (in Farsi)
Koocheki, A. & Bananian Aval, M. (1996). Pulse Crops. University of Mashhad Jahade-Daneshgahi Press. (in Farsi)
Latifzadeh, M., Aboutalebian, M. A., Zavareh, M. & Rabiei, M. (2013). Effects of seed priming and sowing dates on seedling emergence, yield and yield components of a local genotype of bean as a double crop in Rasht. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 44(1), 23-33. (in Farsi)
Leport, L., Turner, N.C., French, R.J., Barr, M.D., Duda, R., Davies, S.L., Tennant, D. & Siddique, K.H.M. (1999). Physiological responses of chickpea genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean-type environment. European Journal of Agronomy, 11, 279-291.
Oweis, T., Hachum, A. & Pala, M. (2004). Water use efficiency of winter-sown chickpea under supplemental irrigation in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Water Management, 66, 163-179.
Rahchamandi, H., Aboutalebian, M. A., Ahmadvand, G. & Jahedi, A. (2010). Effects of on-farm seed priming and sowing date on yield and yield components of three soybean cultivars (Glycine max L.) in Hamedan. Plant Production Technology, 10(2), 17-29. (in Farsi)
Rezvani Moghadam, P. & Sadeghi Samarjan, R. (2008). Effect of sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (cultivar ILC 3279). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 6(2), 315-325. (in Farsi)
Sanhewe, A. J. & Ellis, R. H. (1996). Seed development and maturation in (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation. JournalofExperimental Botany, 47, 949-958.
Singh, K. B. (1997). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crops Research, 53, 161-170.
Szilagyi, L.(2003). Influence of drought on seed yield components in common bean. Bulgarian Journal Plant Physiology, Special Issue, 320-330.
Turk, M.A., Tawaha, A.M. & El-Shatnawi, M.K.J. (2003). Response of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) to plant density, sowing date, phosphorus fertilization and ethephon application in the absence of moisture stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 189, 1-6.
Windauer, L., Altuna, A. & Arnold, R.B. (2007). Hydrotime analysis of Lesquerela fendleri seed germination responses to priming treatments. Industrial Crops and Products, 25, 70-74.
Zhang, H., Pala, M., Oweis, T. & Harris, H. (2000). Water use and water efficiency of chickpea and lentil in a Mediterranean environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 51, 295-304.
Zarei, I., Mohammadi, G., Sohrabi, Y., Kahrizi, D., Khah, E.M. & Yari, K. (2011). Effect of different hydropriming times on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 14844-14850.