تجزیۀ تنوع ژنتیکی در صفات زراعی ژنوتیپ‌های نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) با استفاده از روش‌های آماری چند متغیره

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

2 استاد، اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 دانشیار، اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی در ژنوتیپ­های نخود زراعی، 57 ژنوتیپ مختلف نخود به همراه شش شاهد (جم، کوروش، هاشم، آزاد، آرمان، بومی) در دو سال در سال­های زراعی 94-1392 در منطقۀ شهربابک کشت شدند و صفات زراعی روز از کاشت تا گلدهی، شمار کل غلاف­ها در بوته، شمار غلاف‌های پر و خالی در هر بوته، شمار دانه در بوته، عملکرد در بوته ، وزن خشک بوته، شاخص برداشت و وزن صددانه اندازه‌گیری شدند. بیشتر صفات، دامنۀ گسترده‌ای از تغییرپذیری‌ها را نشان دادند که بیانگر وجود تنوع بالا در ژنوتیپ­های مورد بررسی بود. بالاترین ضریب تغییرپذیری برای صفت شمار غلاف پر در بوته (56/35 درصد) و پایین­ترین ضریب تغییرپذیری فنوتیپی، برای صفت شمار روز از کاشت تا گلدهی (50/7 درصد) مشاهده شد. ژنوتیپ­ها در سه خوشه (کلاستر) گروه‌بندی شدند. در تجزیه به عامل­ها  پنج عامل، 9/89 درصد از کل تغییرپذیری بین داده­ها را توجیه کردند. تجزیۀ رگرسیون مرحله­ای نشان داد که صفات شمار غلاف پر در بوته، شاخص برداشت، وزن خشک زیست‌تودۀ (بیوماس)  بوته و وزن صددانه بیشترین تأثیر را بر عملکرد داشتند. در نهایت، بر پایۀ مجموع رتبۀ ژنوتیپ‌ها در صفاتی که بیشترین تأثیر را  بر عملکرد داشتند و همچنین شاخص پایداری عملکرد، ژنوتیپ­های Mahan (606)، ILC482، Esfahan(478) و Uromyeh (129) انتخاب شدند تا مجددا همراه با نمونۀ بومی شهربابک در یک آزمایش تکرار­دار در منطقۀ شهربابک کشت ‌شده و بهترین ژنوتیپ برای منطقه انتخاب و معرفی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of genetic diversity in agronomic traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes using multivariate methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Malihe Usefi 1
  • Hossein Dashti 2
  • Mohammad Reza Bihamta 3
  • Shahab Madah Hosseini 4
1 M.Sc. Student, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Professor, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the genetic diversity of chickpea cultivars, 57 chickpea genotypes along with six controls (Jam, Korosh, Hashem, Azad, Arman and local variety) were planted in Shahrbabak during 2014-2015. Agronomic traits including, number of days to flowering, the total number of pod per plant, number of empty pods per plant, number of full pod per plant, number of seeds per plant, biologic dry weight, harvest index and seed weight  was measured. Results indicated that most traits have a wide range of variation, as indicating high variability in genotypes. The highest coefficient of variability for the number of pods per plant (34.8%) and the lowest coefficient of phenotypic variations was observed for the number of days to flowering (7.52%). Genotypes were grouped in three clusters. Five factors extracted in factor analysis explained 89.59 % of total variations. The results of stepwise regression showed that the number of pods per plant, harvest index, biological dry weight per plant and 100KW had the greatest impact on yield. Finally, based on genotypes rank in traits that had most effectiveness on grain yield and yield stability index, the genotypes: Mahan (606), ILC482, Esfahan (478) and Uromyeh (129) were selected to replanting along with local genotype in an experimental desgin in Shahrbabak for selecting the best genotype and  introduce for  shahbabak  region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea
  • Cluster
  • factor
  • Rank
  • Stability
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