تأثیر محلول‌پاشی اسید آسکوربیک بر ویژگی‌های کمّی، کیفی و برخی تغییرپذیری‌های بیوشیمیایی برگ ذرت دانه‌ای در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد ورامین- پیشوا، ورامین، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر تنش کمبود آب و محلول­پاشی اسید آسکوربیک، بر ویژگی­های زراعی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی ذرت آزمایشی در سال 1393 در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ورامین صورت پذیرفت. این تحقیق به‌صورت کرت های خرد شده(اسپیلیت پلات) در قالب طرح پایۀ بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. عامل آبیاری به‌عنوان عامل اصلی در چهار سطح )آبیاری بنا بر عرف منطقه، قطع آبیاری در مرحلۀ هشت برگی، قطع آبیاری در مرحلۀ ظهور کاکل و قطع آبیاری در مراحل هشت برگی و ظهور کاکل در بلال به­طور توأم) و عامل فرعی شامل محلول­پاشی اسید آسکوربیک در سه سطح (محلول­پاشی با آب خالص، محلول­پاشی با غلظت 50 قسمت در میلیون(پی­پی­ام) ومحلول‌پاشی با غلظت 100 قسمت در میلیون) در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از این بررسی نشان داد که قطع آبیاری در مراحل مختلف رشد ذرت سبب کاهش معنی­داری در عملکرد دانه و عملکرد زیست توده (بیوماس)، شاخص برداشت، درصد روغن و پروتئین دانه، عملکرد روغن و پروتئین دانه و محتوای سبزینۀ (کلروفیل) برگ و افزایش میزان پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دیسموتاز شد. محلول‌پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک توانست از کاهش عملکرد کمی و کیفی و محتوای سبزینۀ برگ و همچنین افزایش میزان پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم سوپر اکسید دیسموتاز جلوگیری کند. به‌طورکلی با توجه به بهبود کمی و کیفی صفات مورد بررسی می­توان نتیجه گرفت که کاربرد اسید آسکوربیک با از بین بردن رادیکال­های آزاد سبب کاهش فعالیت آنزیم­های پاداکسنده (آنتی‌اکسیدانت) و تجمع پرولین شده و به‌طور غیرمستقیم با بهبود شرایط رشد سبب افزایش عملکرد و کیفیت دانۀ ذرت می­ شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of foliar application of ascorbic acid on quantitative and qualitative traits as well as some biochemical changes in leaves of grain corn (Zea maize L.) under water deficit stress

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamidreza Towhidi Moghaddam
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Varamin, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of ascorbic acid on some agronomic, physiologic and biochemical traits of corn, an experiment was conducted in research field of  Agriculture  Faculty  of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch in Iran during 2014 growing season. The experimental design was laid out in a randomized complete block arranged in split plots with three replicates. Irrigation at four levels (normal irrigation according to the region, irrigation withholding at eight leafy stage, irrigation withholding at silking stage and irrigation withholding at eight leaf stage and silking stages) as the main factor and ascorbic acid foliar application at three levels (0, 50 and 100 ppm) as the sub-factor were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed that irrigation withholding at different growth stages significantly decreased seed yield and biological yield, harvest index, oil and protein percentage, oil and protein yield, total chlorophyll content, increased proline content and superoxide dismutase activity in the leaves. Foliar application of ascorbic acid could prevent quantitative and qualitative yield loss and chlorophyll degradation. In addition, ascorbic acid foliar application decreased proline accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in the leaves. In general, considering the qualitative and quantitative improvement in studied traits, it can be concluded that ascorbic acid application can scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and proline accumulation, which in turn, leads to increased seed yield and quality with improving growth conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain protein
  • Irrigation withholding
  • proline
  • superoxide dismutase enzyme
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