بررسی تأثیر زمان کاشت بر روند پر شدن و عملکرد دانه در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان با استفاده از روش تجزیۀ آماری چندمتغیره در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور

4 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی رابطۀ عملکرد دانه با صفات زراعی ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان در زمان‌های مختلف کاشت در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در گنبدکاووس در سال‌های زراعی 93-1391 اجرا شد. صفات مورد ارزیابی عبارت از: شمار سنبله در مترمربع، سرعت پر شدن دانه، دورۀ مؤثر پر شدن دانه، شمار دانه در سنبله، وزن هزاردانه، وزن دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیستی و شاخص برداشت، بودند. تیمارهای زمان کاشت 11 و30 آذر، 19 دی، 8 و 28 بهمن و ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان شامل: گنبد، کوه‌دشت، کریم و رگه (لاین)‌های 7 و 16 بودند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین عملکرد دانه از 4956 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال اول به 2833 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال دوم (43 درصد) کاهش یافت. عملکرد دانه بالاترین همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار را به ترتیب با عملکرد زیستی (**97/0= r) و مدت پر شدن دانه (**93/0=r) داشت. نتایج تجزیۀ رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام جلورونده نشان داد که عملکرد زیستی و شاخص برداشت، بیش از 99 درصد از تغییرپذیری عملکرد دانه را در گام اول توجیه کردند که نشان‌دهندۀ اهمیت بالای آن‌ها در عملکرد دانه است. دورۀ پر شدن دانه از راه عملکرد زیستی با عملکرد دانه رابطۀ معنی‌داری داشت. دورۀ پر شدن دانه و عملکرد زیستی نقش مؤثری را در افزایش عملکرد داشتند و بنابراین می‌توانند در گزینش رقم‌ها و رگه‌های مناسب گندم دیم استفاده شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting date on grain filling trend and grain yield of bread wheat genotypes using multivariate analysis method under dryland conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Mohammadi Gonbad 1
  • Masoud Esfahani 2
  • Mozaffar Roustaii 3
  • Hossein Sabouri 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Collage of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran
2 Professor, Collage of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran
3 Associate Professor and Head of Cereal Department DARI, Maragheh, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Gonbad-e-Kavous University, Gonbad-e-Kavous, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the relationship between grain yield and agronomic characteristics in bread wheat genotypes in different planting dates under rainfed conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCBD with four replications at Gonbad-e Qabus region, Iran, during 2012-2014 growing seasons. Number of spikes per unit area, grain filling rate, effective grain filling period, number of grain per spike, 1000KW, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Planting dates including Dec. 2nd, Dec. 21st, Jan. 9th, Jan. 28th and Feb. 17th were considered as first and five wheat genotypes: Gonbad, Karim, Koohdasht, line 7 and line 16, as second factor, respectively. Combined analysis of variance revealed that the mean grain yield decreased from 4956 in the first year to 2833 kg.ha-1 in the second year (43% reduction). Grain yield had the highest and positive significant correlation with biological yield (r= 0.97**) and grain filling duration (r= 0.97**). The stepwise regression analysis showed that biological yield and harvest index justified more than 99% of grain yield variation, indicating their considerable importance in grain yield. Grain filling duration was the first variable to enter to the model and showed more important role in grain yield justification. The grain filling duration and biological yield had effective role in grain yield that could be used for selecting the suitable genotypes of wheat for rainfed conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bread wheat
  • Grain filling duration
  • growing degree days
  • path analysis and stepwise regression
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