تأثیر خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و متداول با مدیریت بقایا بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهرود

2 دانشیار، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهرود

3 استاد، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و متداول با مدیریت بقایا بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی گندم، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا شد. تیمار‌های آزمایش شامل: الف) شیوه‌‌های خاک‌ورزی در سه سطح (خاک‌ورزی متداول، کمترین شخم، بدون شخم) و ب) مدیریت بقایا در سه سطح (0، 30 و60درصد بقایا) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که محتوای نسبی آب برگ، تفاوت دمای سایه‌انداز با محیط، محتوای سبزینة (کلروفیل) برگ (خواندن SPAD)، سطح برگ پرچم، پتانسیل آب برگ، تشعشع جذب‌شده در بین روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی اختلاف معنی‌داری داشتند و بیشترین مقادیر صفات یادشده در تیمار بدون شخم به دست آمد که به ترتیب معادل 83 درصد، cº 36/7-، 35/47،  cm23/26، bar 19/11- و 22/90 درصد بود. در میزان مختلف کاربرد بقایا، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، تفاوت دمای سایه‌انداز با محیط و تشعشع جذب‌شده اختلاف معنی‌داری داشتند اما در خواندن SPAD، سطح برگ پرچم و پتانسیل آب برگ تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار بدون شخم (2/6912 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در بقایای 60 درصد (8/6980 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. آزمایش نشان داد خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی همراه بقایای بیشتر روی سطح خاک می‌تواند باعث بهبود برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی شامل محتوای نسبی آب برگ، تفاوت دمای سایه‌انداز با محیط، خواندن SPAD، سطح برگ پرچم، پتانسیل آب برگ، تشعشع جذب‌شده و عملکرد گندم شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of conventional and conservation tillage with management residue on wheat (Triticum aestivum L) physiological properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Fallahheravi 1
  • Hamid Abbasdokht 2
  • Ahmad Zarea Feizabadi 3
  • Ahmad Gholami 2
1 Agricultural Jihad Organization of Khorasan Razavi- expert
2 Associate Professor , University of Shahrood , college of Agriculture
3 Professor , Agricultural and Natural Resources Research center of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of conventional and conservation tillage with management residue on wheat physiological properties, a field experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 at Mashhad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Razavi Khorasan province. This experiment was carried out as split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots included tillage systems: 1) conventional tillage, 2) reduced tillage and 3) no tillage; subplots were management residue: 1) 0%, 2) 30% and 3) 60% residue. The results showed that tillage systems had significant effect on relative water content (RWC), the difference between canopy temperature and air temperature (∆t), SPAD reading, Flag leaf area (FLA), Leaf water potential (ΨW) and Radiation interception (RI). The highest RWC (83%), ‌∆t (-7.36 cº), SPAD (47.35), FLA (26.3 cm2), ΨW (-11.19 bar) and RI (90.22%) were detected in no-tillage method. Residue management had significantly different on RWC, ∆t and RI traits, but no significant effect on SPAD reading, Flag leaf area (FLA), leaf water potential (ΨW) was detected. The highest grain yields were obtained under no-till (6912.2 kg/ha) and 60% residue treatment (6980.8 kg/ha). It is concluded that conservation tillage with more aboveground residue could improve wheat yield and some of physiological properties (RWC, ∆t, SPAD reading, FLA, ΨW and RI).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy temperature
  • no-tillage
  • Radiation
  • relative water content
  • Wheat
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