تأثیر کم آبیاری بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی علوفه و کارایی کاربرد آب در ذرت سیلویی (SC260)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک‌درمیان بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی ذرت سیلویی دورگ (هیبرید) سینگل­کراس 260 (فجر) در کشت مخلوط با یونجة یک‌ساله در مزرعة تحقیقاتی دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام در سال 1388، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. آبیاری در دو سطح (آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک‌درمیان و جویچه‌ای کامل) به کرت‌های اصلی اختصاص یافت و کرت‌های فرعی شامل شاهد (کشت خالص ذرت بدون کود نیتروژن)، کشت خالص با کاربرد کود و کشت مخلوط ذرت SC260 (فجر) با یونجة همدانی بدون کاربرد کود شد. شرایط آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک‌درمیان در همة طول دورة رشد باعث کاهش معنی‌دار وزن خشک و تر علوفة خالص و علوفة مخلوط (یونجه + ذرت)، میزان پروتئین و افزایش کارایی کاربرد آب شد. تأثیر روش آبیاری بر میزان NDF معنی­دار نشد. از میان نوع کشت موردبررسی، با توجه به افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد علوفه در نوع کشت خالص با کاربرد کود، این تیمار از نظر کمّی به‌عنوان تیمار برتر ترجیح داده می­شود؛ ولی از لحاظ کیفی کشت مخلوط بدون کاربرد کود به‌عنوان تیمار برتر شناخته می­شود چون میزان پروتئین بالا و میزان NDF کمی دارد. با در نظر گرفتن کارایی کاربرد آب، آبیاری یک‌درمیان و کشت مخلوط بهترین تیمارها هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of limited irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield and water use efficiency of forage maize SC260

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Karimi 1
  • Ali Ashraf Mehrabi 2
  • Mohammad Javad Zare 2
  • Mehrshad Barary 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of agriculture, University of Ilam, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of agriculture, University of Ilam, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of agriculture, University of Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Investigation of various irrigation methods and intercropping are effective strategies for increasing water use efficiency and improve crop production. A field experiment conducted to study the effects of alternate furrow irrigation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forage corn with annual alfalfa cropping under its canopy in Ilam climate conditions. Experiment carried out as a split plot based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications at research farm of Ilam University. Irrigation (alternate furrow irrigation and common furrow irrigation) as main plots and planting methods (Control without nitrogen fertilizer and alfalfa, nitrogen fertilizer and intercropping) as sub plots. The results showed that alternate furrow irrigation decreased significantly total dry weight and total produced forage dry weight (dry forage of corn and dry forage of alfalfa, total fresh weight and total produced forage fresh weight (fresh forage of corn and fresh forage of alfalfa), and protein content. According to the results, the most quantity of forage obtained from corn plots with nitrogen which commonly irrigated, also the best quality was in cropping alfalfa under corn canopy without fertilizer. Therefore, intercropping of corn and alfalfa with alternate furrow irrigation is suggested to produce high quality forage with considering water use efficiency. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternate furrow irrigation Zea mays
  • Forage yield
  • Water use efficiency
Afshar, H. & Mehrabadi, H.R. (2003). Study of different patterns of furrow irrigation on a total amount of water and cotton yield. Tehran, Institute of Agricultural Engineering Research Publication No. 276. (in Farsi)
Abd El-Halim, A.H. (2013). Impact of alternate furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals on yield, water use efficiency and economic return of corn. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 73, 175-180.
Askari, A. (2004). The effect of planting date and plant density on corn yield in Hormozgan (hybrid 704 SC).Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 12, 11-16. (in Farsi)
Beheshti, S. A. (2002). Effect of canopy structure on eco-physiological aspects of hybrid varieties of maize associated with radiation use efficiency and nitrogen uptake. Ph.D. thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (in Farsi)
Cox, W. J. & Cherny, D. J. R. (2001). Row spacing plant density and nitrogen effects on corn silage, Agronomy Journal, 93, 597-602.
Daneshmand, A., Shirani Rad, A., Nourmohammadi, GH., Zarei, GH. & Daneshian, G. (2006). The effect of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield components, N uptake and water use efficiency in two rapeseed cultivars, Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 8(4), 125-129. (in Farsi)
Davani, D. (2003). Effect of plant density and nitrogen on yield and quality and some morphological and physiological characteristics of corn silage hybrid dual SC 604, M.Sc. thesis, Urumiah University, Iran. (in Farsi)
Ebadi, A., Tobeh, H., Karbalai Khiavi, V. & Khodadus, T.Z. (2006). A study on the effect of nitrogen on yield and yield components of soybean in low water conditions, Journal of Research, 71. (in Farsi)
Emam, Y. (2007). The agriculture crops, Shiraz: Shiraz University Press. (in Farsi)
Ghanbari Bonjar, A. & Lee, H. C. (2002). Intercropped field beans (Vicia faba) and with (Triticum aestivum) for whole crop forage. Effect of nitrogen on forage yield and quality. Journal Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 138, 311-314.
Ghasemi, A. M., Ghasemi, A. & Ghanbari, A. (2001). The effect of different amounts of organic fertilizer, chemical its composition on qualitative indicators on nitrogen assimilation in the forage maize varieties SC 704, Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research of Sistan. (in Farsi)
Havasy Poor, A. (2006). Effects of furrow irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of cane in south of Khuzestan, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran. (in Farsi)
Jalyny, M.A., Ghaemi, E. & Zarehparvar, H. (2008). Effects of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water use efficiency in sugar beet. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 4(2), 164-172. (in Farsi)
Kafi, M. & Mahdavi Damghani, A. (2002). Mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress in plants (translated). Mashhad: Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. (in Farsi)
Kang, S. Z., Shi, P., Pan, Y. H., Liang, Z. S. & Hu, X. T. (2000). Soil water distribution, uniformity and water use efficiency under alternate furrow irrigation in arid areas. Irrigation Science, 19(4), 181-190.
Khodabaneh, N. (2000). Grains, Tehran: Publication of Tehran University. (in Farsi)
Khajeh Abdollahi, M. (1997). A study on the effect of alternate furrow irrigation on yield of grain maize in Bajgah and Kooshkak. M.Sc. thesis, Shiraz University. (in Farsi)
Majidian, M., ghalavand, A., Kamgar Haghighi, A. & Karimian, N. (2006). The effects of nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilizer and water irrigation on yield and yield components of corn, Electronic Journal of produce crop plants, 1(2), 67-85. (in Farsi)
Maleki Farahani, S. et al. (2003). Rhizobium effects of different methods on growth and nitrogen fixation of annual medics, Iranian Journal of Rangeland and forest plant Breeding and Genetics Research, 12(1). (in Farsi)
Mazaheri, D. et al. (2002). Effect of planting patterns and plant density on yield and yield components in maize single cross hybrids averaged 647 (researcher), Journal of Research and Construction, 54, 46-48. (in Farsi)
Mohajermilany, P., Molahoseini, H. & Noori Hosseini, M. (2004). Increase of water use efficiency with salty water in the cotton and corn with alternate furrow irrigation, Journal of Soil and Water Sciences, 18(2). (in Farsi)
Nakhzari moghadam, A. M., Chaechi, R., Mazaheri, D., Rahimian, H., Majnun hosseini, A. & Nurinia, A. (2009). The effect of mix cultivation of maize and green mung beans on yield, equality earth and some of properties of quality of forage, Iranian Journal of plant Science, 40(4), 151-159. (in Farsi)
Niakan, M. & Ghorbanli, M. (2007). The effect of index of drought stress on growth protein and iron content, photosynthetic parameters, in the air and underground in soybean cultivars, Rostaniha, 8(1). (in Farsi)
Pandy, R. K., Maranvill, J. W. & Chetima, M. M. (2000). Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment II. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction. Agriculture Water Manag, 46, 15-27.
Parand, A. (1997). The effect of common furrow irrigation at different growth stages on corn yield with alternate Furrow irrigation in deep and shallow water table conditions. M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University. (in Farsi)
Sajedi, N. A. & Ardakani, M. (2008). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, zinc and iron on physiological indicators of forage maize in Markazi province, Iranian journal of crop research, 6(1). (in Farsi)
Sharmasarkar, F. C., Sharmasarkar, Miller, S. D., Vance, G. F. & Zhang, R. (2001). Assesment of drip and flood irrigation on water and fertilizer use efficiencies for sugar beets. Agriculture Water Manag, 46, 241-251.
Shini Dshtgel, A., Kashkooli, H.A., Naseri, A. & Brumand Nasab, C. (2009). The effects of furrow irrigation on water use efficiency and characteristics of cane in south of Ahwaz, Soil and Water Sciences, in thirteenth, 49. (in Farsi)
Soltani, A. & Faraji, A. (2007). Soil water and plant relationship, Mashhad: Publication of Jahad University. (in Farsi)