ارزیابی واکنش ژنوتیپ‌های گندم به تنش سرما در مرحلۀ ظهور سنبله با استفاده از شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد زراعت، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

3 مربی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

چکیده

     کاهش دما در ماه‌های دی و بهمن در خوزستان یک پدیدۀ غالب اقلیمی است که سبب خسارت دیدن گیاه و عملکرد می‌شود. به‌منظور مطالعۀ اثر تنش سرما در مرحلۀ ظهور‌ سنبله بر وزن ‌دانه در سنبلۀ ‌اصلی، اجزای آن و برخی صفات فنولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی ژنوتیپ‌های گندم، این تحقیق در سال 1392 تحت شرایط کنترل‌شدۀ گلخانه با پنج ژنوتیپ ‌(ارقام چمران، ویریناک، استار و کرخه و لاین M-83-17) و چهار دمای محیط (بدون‌ سرما، 3+، صفر، 3- درجۀ سانتی‌گراد) به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً ‌تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان اجرا شد. زمان رسیدگی‌ فیزیولوژیکی، ارتفاع‌ بوته و طول‌ سنبله، وزن‌ دانه ‌در ‌سنبلۀ ‌اصلی و اجزای آن شامل تعداد ‌سنبلچه‌ در‌ سنبله، تعداد دانه ‌در ‌سنبله و وزن ‌هزار‌دانه و شاخص‌های کلروفیل‌فلورسانسFo ، Fm و Fv/Fmارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد اثر تنش سرما بر زمان از سبز شدن تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیکی، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن دانه در سنبلۀ اصلی و شاخص  Fv/Fm معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین وزن دانه ‌در ‌سنبلۀ ‌اصلی در شرایط بدون‌ تنش به لاین M-83-17، در تنش 3- و صفر درجۀ ‌سانتی‌گراد به رقم چمران و در تنش سرمای 3+ درجۀ ‌سانتی‌گراد به رقم ویریناک تعلق داشت. شاخص Fv/Fmدر تنش صفر‌ درجه، بیشترین اختلاف را نسبت به وضعیت قبل از‌ تنش داشت. لاین M-83-17 به‌عنوان یک ژنوتیپ برتر پتانسیل عملکرد بیشتری نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ‌ها داشت، درحالی که رقم چمران رقمی با قابلیت ژنتیکی بیشتر برای تحمل تنش ارزیابی شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Wheat Genotypes Response to Chilling Stress at Heading Stage Using Physiological Indices, Yield and Yield Components

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrzad Tavoosi 1
  • Ahmad Naderi 2
  • Gholam Abbas Lotfeali Ayeneh 3
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Agricultural Management, College of Agriculture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate prof of Khuzestan Natural Resources and Agricultural Research Center
3 Assistant prof of Khuzestan Natural Resources and Agricultural Research Center
چکیده [English]

Temperature reduction since late December until late February is a dominate climate phenomena in Khuzestan which caused plant damage and subsequently yield reduction. In order to study the effect of chilling stress at heading stage on yield, yield component and some physiological traits of wheat genotypes, this research was carried-out with five genotypes (Chamran, Vee/Nac, Star, Kharkheh cv. and line M-83-17) and four environmental temperatures(non-stress, and+3,0 and -3°C) under greenhouse condition, in factorial experiment using CRD with three replications in Khuzestan Natural Resources and Agricultural Research Center in 2013. Date of physiological maturity, plant height and spike length, yield components including spikelet/spike, grain no./spike, 1000 grain weight and grain weight in main spike and Fo, Fm, andFv/Fm indices were evaluated. Results showed that the effect of chilling stress was significant for days from germination to physiological maturity, grain no. per spike, grain weight in main spike and Fv/Fm traits. The highest grain weight in main spike under non-stress and -3°C chilling stress was belonged to
 line M-83-17 and Chamran cultivar, respectively and under zero and 3°C chilling stress were obtained from Chamran cv. and Vee/Nac, respectively. The highest difference before and after chilling in Fv/Fm index was belonged to zero chilling stress. Differences in traits which were studied in this research indicated genetic variation in genotype response to chilling stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genetic variation
  • Heading
  • Phenological
  • physiological
  • Wheat
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