عملکرد و کیفیت غده‌های خوراکی و بذری سیب‌زمینی در واکنش به سطوح مختلف فسفر و زمان‌بندی نیتروژن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال کرج

چکیده

به‌منظور تعیین توزیع زمانی مناسب کاربرد کود نیتروژن و مقدار مطلوب کود فسفره برای دستیابی به عملکرد و کیفیت مطلوب در غده‌های خوراکی و بذری سیب‌زمینی، آزمایشی در سال 1391 در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران انجام گرفت. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشدۀ نواری و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد که در آن اثر دو عامل مقدار کود فسفرۀ دی‌آمونیوم فسفات (چهار سطح صفر، 175، 350 و 525 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و سه زمان مصرف کود نیتروژن اوره شامل N1 (15 درصد زمان کاشت، عدم استفاده در مرحلۀ غده‌زایی و 85 درصد طی سه نوبت در مرحلۀ حجیم شدن غده‌ها)،N2  (35 درصد زمان کاشت، عدم استفاده در مرحلۀ غده‌زایی و 65 درصد طی یک نوبت در مرحلۀ حجیم شدن غده‌ها) و N3 (35 درصد زمان کاشت، 30 درصد در مرحلۀ غده‌زایی و 35 درصد در مرحلۀ حجیم شدن غده‌ها) بر سیب‌زمینی مطالعه شد. نتایج نشان داد که روش سوم زمان‌بندی کوددهی نیتروژن علاوه‌بر کاهش چشمگیر درصد نیترات غده، عملکرد غده را نیز به‌طور مؤثری افزایش داده است. اگرچه سطوح مختلف کود فسفره تأثیر معنی‌داری بر عملکرد غده‌های تولیدی نداشت، افزایش کود فسفره تا سطح سوم (350 کیلوگرم در هکتار) موجب افزایش تعداد غده‌ها شد و کاربرد بیش از این مقدار به‌طور معنی‌داری تعداد غده‌های تولیدی را کاهش داد. همچنین سطح چهارم کود فسفره (525 کیلوگرم در هکتار) وزن مخصوص غده‌ها را نسبت به سایر سطوح به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد. بنابراین افزایش کود فسفره تا حدی نقش مؤثری در تحریک فرایند غده‌زایی بوتۀ سیب‌زمینی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield and quality of potato seed and edible tubers in response to different phosphorus levels and nitrogen application times

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Mohammad Jamshidi 1
  • Ali Ahmadi 2
  • Babak Darvishi 3
1 Former Graduate Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the appropriate distribution of nitrogen fertilizer application and optimum amount of phosphorus fertilizer to achieve high quality and quantitative yield in edible and seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, this experiment was conducted in Research Farm of the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran in 2012. The experiment was performed a strip split blocks based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The effects of two factor of phosphorus fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP) at four rates of 0 (control), 175, 350 and 525 kg.ha-1) and supplemental nitrogen (N) fertilization (Urea) was studied on three application times includes: N1 (15% planting time, nonuse in tuberization stage and 85% at three times of tubers bulking stage), N2 (35% planting time, nonuse in tuberization stage and 65% at once in tubers bulking stage) and N3 (35% planting time, 30% in tuberization stage and 35% in tubers bulking stage) on potato plant. Results showed that third method of supplemental nitrogen fertilization reduced effectively the rate of nitrate percentage in tubers.Tuber yield significantly increased in this treatment. Although, the different levels of phosphorus fertilization had no effect on tubers yield, but rising of phosphorus fertilization up to the third level (350 kg DAP.ha-1) caused to enhance the number of tubers and excess application of this rate reduced the number of tubers significantly. Moreover fourth level of P fertilizer (525 kg DAP.ha-1) significantly increased specific gravity of tubers, compared to the other levels. Therefore results indicated that addition of phosphorus fertilizer effectively stimulated tuberization of potato plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tubers bulking
  • tuberization
  • nitrate percentage
  • Phosphorus
  • Tuber yield
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