بررسی عملکرد دانه و صفات کیفی ذرت شیرین (Zea mays L.var. Sacarata) تحت تیمارهای کم‌آبی، تشعشع فرابنفش و ازدیاد دی‌اکسید کربن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 استاد فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، بزرگراه جلال آل احمد، پل نصر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، گروه زراعت

3 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم زیستی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، گروه علوم گیاهی

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه پیام نور واحد کرج

5 استادیار گروه آبیاری دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

تابش فرابنفش، کم‌آبی و افزایش دی‌اکسید کربن از مهم‌ترین عوامل محیطی در تغییر اقلیم جهانی‌اند. به همین منظور این پژوهش در گلخانۀ تحقیقاتی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران در سال 1390 با هدف بررسی عملکرد دانه و برخی صفات کیفی ذرت شیرین تحت سطوح مختلف دی‌اکسید کربن (500، 900 و 1300 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا)، اشعۀ فرابنفش (UV-A, B, C) و سطح آب آبیاری (آبیاری کامل یا عدم تنش خشکی و کمبود آب به‌مقدار 60 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایۀ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال 1390 اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل دی‌اکسید کربن، کم‌آبی و تابش فرابنفش، تأثیر شایان توجهی در عملکرد دانه و Fv/Fm داشت و بیشترین عملکرد دانه در اثر تیمار شاهد آبیاری و غلظت 900 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا با UV-A به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان Fv/Fm در شرایط اعمال کم‌آبی و غلظت 1300 میکرو‌لیتر بر لیتر هوا دی‌اکسید کربن با UV-C به‌دست آمد. اثر متقابل کم‌آبی با
دی‌اکسید کربن (900 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا) مقدار پرولین، کلروفیلa، کلروفیلb، کلروفیلa+b، کارتنوئیدها و فلاونوئیدها را کاهش داد. پروتئین دانه نیز با کاهش طول موج تابش فرابنفش کاهش یافت. بدین ترتیب سه تنش عمدۀ محیطی با کاهش توان تولیدی گیاه، مقدار عملکرد آن را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studing grain yield and quality traits of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Sacarata) under water deficit, ultraviolet radiation and increasing carbon dioxide treatments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habibah Jahanbakhsh 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy 2
  • Faezeh Ghanati 3
  • Akbar Tavakkoli 1
  • Mehrdad Moradi-Ghahderijani 4
  • Mehdi Panahi 5
1 M.Sc. students in Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Professor in Crop Physiology, Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Nasr Bridge, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor in Plant Science Department, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, I.R. of IRAN
4 M.Sc. student in Agronomy, Karaj Payamnour University
5 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University
چکیده [English]

Water deficit, ultraviolet radiation and carbon dioxide enrichment are the most important environmental factors in global climate change. This research was conducted in Tarbiat Modares University, Research Greenhouse and the objective of that was to study the effects of three levels of carbon dioxide (500, 900 and 1300 ppm), UV-radiation (UV-A, B and C with intensity of 18, 25 and 40 µW.cm2 respectively) and water deficit (common irrigation and 40 percent of available water remain in soil) on grain yield, some quality traits of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Sacarata). The experiment was conducted as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in one year (2009). The results showed that interaction among UV-C radiation, elevated CO2 and water stress had a significant effect on grain yield and Fv/Fm. The highest grain yield was obtained in water deficit and 900 (µl/l) CO2 concentration. The most content Fv/Fm was obtained under water deficit and 1300 (µl/l) CO2 concentration. Water deficit and elevated CO2 increased proline, and decreased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, carotenoids and flavonoids. Grain protein decreased with wavelength UV reduction. Above result showed that three main environmental stresses reduced plant productivity strategy in most condition and as a result decreased the performance of corn plant.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • carbon dioxide
  • sweet corn
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • Water deficit
  • Grain yield
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