The effect of tillage management, salicylic acid and mycorrhizal fungi on soil respiration, and some growth characteristics of maize

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrood, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrood, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrood, Iran


The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different tillage operations, seed priming and application of mycorrhizal fungi on yield, yield components and some growth characters of corn. For this purpose, a split plot factorial in a randomized complete block design was used with three replications in research farm of Shahrood University of Technology, in 2014. Three levels of tillage, conventional tillage (moldboard, disk and furrower), reduce tillage (disc and furrower) minimum tillage (furrower) as a considered main factor. The combination of pretreatment levels (salicylic acid spraying in 0.1 normal concentration and non-spraying) and levels of mycorrhiza (inoculated and non-inoculated) were treated as subplot factors. Analysis of variance showed a significant triple interaction effect of whole treatments on biological and seed yield. Soil bulk density was significantly affected bydifferent levels of tillage. The interaction effects of tillage and fungal symbiosis was significant for soil respiration, the percentage of colonization and 100 seed weight. The results of mean comparison showed that both biological and seed yield was significantly increased in treatment combining of conventional tillage, seed pretreatment and fungal symbiosis. Moreover, the interaction of conventional tillage and fungal symbiosis caused a significant increase in soil respiration and seed weight. Soil bulk density was also significantly increased by conventional tillage.


Main Subjects

  1. Abbasdokht, H., Makarian, H., Ahmadi Sharaf, H., Gholami, A. & Rahimi, M. (2012a). The study of integrated weed management (IWM), emphasizing the effect of seed priming on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mayz L.). Weed Research Journal, 4, 63-76. (in Farsi)
  2. Abbasdokht, H. & Edalatpisheh, M. R.  (2012b). Effect of seed priming and different levels of urea on yield and yield component of two corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. IranianJournal of Crop Science, 3, 381-389. (in Farsi)
  3. Barbosa, L. R., Diaz, O. & Barber, R. G. (1986). Effects of deep tillage on soil properties, drowth and yield of soya in a compacted Ustochrept in Santa Cruze, Bolivia.  Soil and Tillage Research, 15(1-2), 51-63.
  4. Bedini, S., Pellegrion E., Avio, L., Pellegrini, S., Bazzoffi, P., Argese, E. & Giovannetti, M. (2009). Changes in soil aggregation and glomalinrelated soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrizal fungal species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41:1491-1496.
  5. Buscot, F. (2005). What are soils?. In: Microorganisms in soils: Roles in genesis and functions. Soil Biology. (pp 3–17). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
  6. Caravaca, F., Alguacil M. M., Azcon, R. & Rolda, A. (2006). Formation of stable aggregates in rhizosphere soil of Juniperus oxycedrus: effect of AM fungi and organic amendments. Applied  Soil Ecology, 33, 30-38.
  7. Cavagnaro, T. R., Jackson, L. E., Six, J., Ferris, H., Goyal, S., Asami, D. & Scow, K. M. (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhizas, microbial communities, nutrient availability and soil aggregates in organic tomato production. Plant Soil, 282, 209-225.
  8. Clark, R. B. & Zeto, S. K. (2000). Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 867-902.
  9. Duman, I. (2006). Effect of seed priming with PE Gand K3PO4 on germination and seedling growth in Lettuce. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 9(5), 923-928.
  10. El Titi, A. (2010). Soil Tillage in Agroecosystems. Taylor and Francis, Nature. pp. 384.
  11. Fariduddin, Q., Hayat, S. & Ahmad, A. (2003). Salicylic acid influences net photosyntheticrate, carboxylation efficiency, nitrate reductase activity and seed yield in Brassicajuncea. Photosynt, 41, 281-284.
  12. Dinesh, R., Srinivasan, V., Hamza, S. & Manjusha, A. (2010). Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)]. Bioresource technology, 101(12), 4697-4702.
  13. El Titi, A. (2010). Soil Tillage in Agroecosystems. Taylor and Francis, Nature 384 pp.
  14. Ellis, F. B., Elliot, J. G. E., Barnes, B. T. & Howse, K. R. (1997). Comparison of direct dirlling, reduced cultivation and plughing on the growth of cereals. Journal of Agricultural Science, 89(03), 631-643
  15. Gupta, M. L., A. Prasad, Ram, M. & kumar, S. (2002). Effect of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasiculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) under field conditions. Bioresource Technol, 81, 77-79.
  16. Gutierrez-Coronado, M. A., Trejo-Lopez, C. & Larque-Saavedra, A. (1998). Effects of salicylic acid on the growth of roots and shoots in soybean. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 36(8), 563-565.
  17. Halvorson, A. D., Mosier, A. R., Reule, C. A. & Bausch, W. C. (2006). Nitrogen and tillage effects on irrigated continuous corn yields. Agronomy Journal, 98(1), 63-71.‏
  18. Hayat, S., Faridudin, Q., Ali, B. & Ahmad, A. (2005). Effect of salicylic acid on growth and enzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 58, 433-437.
  19. Hayat, Q., Hayat, SH., Irfan, M. & Ahmad, A. (2010). Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A reviw. Environmental and Experimental. Botany, 68, 14-25.
  20. Hussain, I., Olson, K. R. & Ebelhar, S. A. (1999). Impacts of tillage and no-till on production of maize and soybean on an eroded Illinois silt loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 52(1), 37-49.
  21. Iqbal, M., Ashraf, M., Jamil, A. & UrÔÇÉRehman, S. (2006). Dose seed priming induce changes in the levels of some endogenous plant hormones in hexaploid wheat plants under salt stress? Journal of integrative plant Biology, 48(2), 181-189.‏
  22. Ishizuka, J. (1992). Trends in biological nitrogen fixation research and application. Plant and Soil, 141(1), 197-209.
  23. Kapoor, R., Giri, B. & Mukerji, K. G. (2002). Glomus macrocarpum: a potential bioinoculant to improve essential oil quality and concentration in Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Carum (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18(5), 459-463.‏
  24. Khavazi, K., Asadi-Rahmani, H. & Malakouti, M. J. (2005). Necessity for the production of biofertilizers in Iran. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. Agricultural Research and Education Organization (AREO) and Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Tehran, Iran, 419.‏
  25. Khold-e Barin, B. & Eslamzadeh, T. (2001). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. (2nd ed.). Shiraz University Press. pp. 902.
  26. Krantev, A., Yordanova, R., Janda, T., Szalai, G. & Popova, L. )2008(. Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165(9), 920-931.
  27. Lithourgidis, A. S., Dhima, K. V., Damalas, C. A., Vasilakoglou, I. B. & Eleftherohorinos, I. G. (2006). Tillage effects on wheat emergence and yield at varying seeding rates and on labor and fuel consumption. Crop Science, 46, 1187-1192.
  28. Marwat, KH. B., Arif, M. & Khan, M. A. (2006). Effct of tillage and zinc application methods on weed and yield of maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(5), 1583-1591.
  29. Mirhadi, M. J. (2001). Corn. The organization of Research, Education and Agriculture Extension Publication. 214 Pp.(in Farsi)
  30. Majnoon hosseini, N. (2006). Cereals crop Agronomy (wheat, barley, rice and corn). Tehran Nagshe Publications. 113 Pp. (in Farsi)
  31. Mukerji, K. G. & Chamola, B. P. (2003). Compendium of Mycorrhiza Research. A. P. H. Publisher. New Delhi. P. 310.
  32. Nadian, H., Smith, S. E., Alston, A. M. & Murray, R. S. (1996). Effects of soil compaction on plant growth, phophorus uptake and morphological characteristics of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Trifolium subterraneum. New Phytologist, 133,303-311.
  33. Ojha, S., Chakraborty, M. R., Dutta,S. &  Chatterjee, N. C. (2008). Influence of VAM on nutrien uptake and growth of wheat. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 22, 221-224.
  34. Osonubi, O. (1994). Coperactive effects of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphrus fertilization on growth and phosphorus uptake of maize and sorghum plant under drought stressed conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 14, 159-165.
  35. Pettipas, F. C. (2004). Soil and plant nutrient relationships in processing carrots. M.Sc. Thesis, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro.
  36. Philips, J. M., and Hayman, D. S. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.
  37. Piotrowska, A., Dlugosz, J., Zamorski, R. & Bogdanowicz, P. (2012). Changes in Soil and Biological Chemical Properties of an Arable Soil Treated with the Microbial Biofertilizer. Journal of Environmental Studies, 21(2), 455-463.
  38. Popova, L. P., Maslenkova, L. T. Yordanova, R. Y., Ivanova, A. P., Krantev, A. P., Szalai, G. & Janda, T. (2009). Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem, 47, 224-231.
  39. Rahimzadeh, R. (2004). Study on the effects of different tillage methods on physical properties of soil and wheat yield in rapeseed-wheat rotation in warm dry land area. Dry land Agricultural Research Institute, 126. (in Farsi)
  40. Riley, H. C. F., Bleken, M. A., Abrahamsen, S., Bergjord, A. K. & Bakken, A. K. (2005). Effects of alternative tillage systems on soil quality and yield of spring cereals on silty clay loam and sandy loam soils in the cool, wet climate of central Norway. Soil and Tillage Research, 80(1), 79-93.‏
  41. Sasanelli, N., Anton, A., Takacs, T., D’Addabbo, T., Biro, I. & Malov, X. (2009). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the nematicidal properties of leaf extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. Helminthologia, 46(4), 230.‏
  42. Senaranta, T., Touchell, D., Bunn, E., & Dixon, K. (2002). Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants. Plant Growth Regulation 30, 157-161.
  43. Shakirova, F. M., Sakhabutdinova, A. R., Bezrukova, M. V., Fatkhutdinova, R. A. & Fatkhutdinova, D. R. (2003). Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant science, 164(3), 317-322.‏
  44. Sharma, A. K. (2002), Biofertilizers for sustainable agricure. Agrobios. (pp.407). India.
  45. Sharralt, B.S. (1996). Tillage and straw management for modifying physical properties of a sub arctic. Soil and Tillage Research, 38,239-250.
  46. Shekari, F. A. R. I. D., Baljani, R., Saba, J. & Afsahi, K. (2010). Effect of seed priming with salicylic acid on growth characteristics of borage plants (Borago officinalis L.) seedlings. Journal of New Agricultural Science, 6(18).‏
  47. Skudra, I. & Skudra, A. (2004). Phosphorus concentration in soil and in winter wheat plants. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia.
  48. Smith, S. E. & Read, D. J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. (3rd Ed.). Academic Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  49. Sylvia, D. M., Hammond, L. C., J. Bennett, M., Haas, J. H. & Linda, S. B. (1993). Field response of maize to a VAM fungus and water management. Agronomy Journal, 85,193-198.
  50. Vyn, T. J. & Raimbault, A. (2003). Long-term effect of five tillage systems on corn response and soil structure. Agronomy Journal, 85, 1074-1079.
  51. Watts, C. W., Eich, S. & Dexter, A. R. (2000). Effects of mechanical energy inputs on soil respiration at the aggregates and field scales. Soil and Tillage Research, 53, 231-243.
  52. Wilson, G. W. T., Rice, C. W., Rillig, M. C., Springer, A. & Hartnett, D. C. (2009). Soil aggregation and carbon sequestration are tightly correlated with the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: results from lang-term fild experiments. Ecology Letter, 12, 452-461.
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
December 2017
Pages 889-900
  • Receive Date: 20 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 07 June 2017
  • Accept Date: 11 June 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2017