Effect of planting date and method on yield and yield components of Echium amoenum under bio and chemical fertilizers application

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


In order to evaluation of simultaneous effects of planting dates and methods and ecofriendly inputs application on yield and yield components of Iranian Ox-Tangue (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.), a split split plots experiment in time based on randomized complete block  design with three replications was conducted in 2011-2014 growing seasons, in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Two different planting dates (10 March 2011 and 4 Aprill 2011), three different types of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers (mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae), Biosulfur, chemical fertilizer and control), two different types of planting methods (direct seeding and transplanting) and two agronomic year assigned to main plots, sub plots, sub-sub plots, sub-sub-sub plots, respectively. The results showed that the highest dry flower yield obtained in March planting date and seeding method and in conditions of mycorrhiza application. Application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers in both of planting dates and both of planting methods increased seed yield, so that application of mycorrhiza, biosulfur and chemical fertilizer in transplanting planting method and Aprill planting date increased seed yield 45, 42 and 35% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results of this research, it seems direct seeding of Echium amoenum in March and application of ecological inputs especially mycorrhiza and biosulfur in Mashhad conditions is better than other treatments.


Main Subjects

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Volume 48, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
December 2017
Pages 825-841
  • Receive Date: 23 September 2015
  • Revise Date: 08 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 16 January 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2017