Comparison of phenological development of Avena ludoviciana ecotypes

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former Ph. D. Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Ph. D. Candidate, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


A precise prediction of the phenological development of weed species in crops would provide timely control for more efficient management of weeds. In order to study, experimental design was a randomized complete block split-split-plots conducted in 2012-2013 at agricultural reaserch field of University of Tehran located at Karaj, Iran. With five planting dates (26Mehr, 14 Azar, 30 Day, 24 Esfand and 4 Ordibehesht) as the main plot treatments. The main plots were split with two moisture conditions (irrigated and rainfed) as subplots. Each subplot was further split with six population (Ahvaz, Shiraz, Qaemshahr, Karaj, Kamyaran and Kermanshah). Time to main phonological stages of the A. ludoviciana populations including emergence time, tillering, heading and maturing were compared using linear regression and multivariate methods. Comparing among populations, emergence rate in two population of Kamyaran (0.11) and Karaj (0.1) was higher than the other populations. Kamyaran population with average less temperature spent each stage of phenological development. A clear clustering was obtained based on rates of phonological development and location characteristics of the population’s origin. Kamayaran and Kermanshah populations were in one cluster, karaj and shiraz were more similar, and mazandaran and Ahvaz showed significantly different from other populations. Kamyaran and Kermanshah showed a higher correlation in the weight of seeds, rate of emergence, and altitude. Ahvaz population showed close relations with temperature. In the Mazandaran population the highest tillering rate and stem elongation rate occurred. Also GDD could use for precision time of application of herbicides and could recommend minimum herbicide application, after optimization of the application, the use of such pesticide would be environmentally safe, Due to the simultaneity of the growth of wild oat and wheat.


Main Subjects

  1. Alm, D. M., McGiffen, J. R. M. E. & Hersketh, J. D. (1991). Weed phenology. In Predicting Crop Phenology, 191-218.
  2. Baghestani, M. H., Zand, A., Barjaste, A. R., Veisi, M., Noroz zade, S. H., Jamali, M. & Kakhaki, S. H. (2008). Investigating efficacy of BEHPIC and CURRENT Herbicides on grassy weed in wheat fields. Final Report. Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute.
  3. Ball, D. A., Klepper, B. & Rydrych, D. J. (1995). Comparative above-ground development rates for several annual grass weeds and cereal grains. Weed Science, 43(3), 410-416.
  4. Bewick, T. A., Binning, L. K. & Yandell, B. (1988). A degree day model for predicting the emergence of swamp dodder in cranberry. Horticulture Science, 839-841.
  5. Boonman, J. G. (1993). East Africa's grasses and fodders: Their ecology and husbandry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  6. Clements, D. R., & Ditommaso, A. (2011). Climate change and weed adaptation: can evolution of invasive plants lead to greater range expansion than forecasted? Weed Research, 51(3), 227-240.
  7. Chancellor, R.J. and Peters, N.C.B. 1976. Competition between wild oat and crops. Pages 99–112 in D. P. Jones, ed. Wild Oats in World Agriculture. London: A RC.
  8. Cudney, D. W., Jordan, L. S. Corbett, C. J. & Bendixen, W.E. (1989) .Developmental rates of wild oats (Avena fatua) and wheat (Triticum aestivum(. Weed Science, 37(4), 521-524.
  9. Dai, J., Wiersma, J. J., Martinson, K. L. & Durgan, B. R. (2012). Influence of time of emergence on the growth and development of wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Science, 60(3), 389-393.
  10. Donohue, K. (2002). Germination timing influences natural selectionon life-history characters in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology, 83(4), 1006-1016.
  11. Dezfoli, M. (1997). Graminea grass weeds in Iran. 480 pp.
  12. Forcella, F., Benech Arnold, R., Sanchez, R. & Ghersa, C. (2000). Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crop Research, 67(2), 123-139.
  13. Ghersa, C. M. & Holt, J. S. (1995). Using phenology prediction in weed management: a review. Weed Research, 461-470.
  14. Gutterman, Y. (1992). Maternal effects on seeds during development. Pages 27–59 in M. Fenner, ed. Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities. Wallingford, U.K.: CAB International.
  15. Hulme, P. E. (2009). Relative roles of life-form, land use and climate in recent dynamics of alien plant distributions in the British Isles. Weed Research, 49(1), 19-28.
  16. Kenkelii, N. A. C., Derksen, D. A., Thomas, A. G. & Watson, P. R. (2002). Multivariate analysis in weeidis'Icience research. Weed Science, 50(3), 281-292.
  17. Kirwa. E. C., Kubasu, D., Mnene, W. N., Kidake, B. & Kimitei, R. K. (2012). Establishment of allelopathic effects in range grass species through pure germinating seed studies. Presented during the 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference held Oct.
  18. Kirwa, E. C., Njoroge, K., Chemining’wa, G. N. & Mnene, N. (2016). Ecological effects on the flowering phenology of Cenchrus ciliaris L. collections from the arid and semiarid lands of Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(12), 1008-1018.
  19. Klingaman, T. E. & Oliver, L. R. (1996). Existence of ecotypes among populations of entireleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula). Weed Science, 44(3), 540-544.
  20. Leblanc, M. L., Cloutier, D. C., Stewart, K. & Hamel, C. (2003). The use of thermal time to model common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) seedling emergence in corn. Weed Science, 51(5), 718-724.
  21. Mack, R. N. & Pyke, D. A. (1983). The demography of Bromus tectorum: variation in time and space. Ecology, 70(1), 69-93.
  22. Masin, R., Loddo, D., Benvenuti, S., Otto, S. & Zanin, G. (2012). Modeling weed emergence in Italian maize fields. Weed Science, 60(2), 254-259.
  23. Menzel, A. (2000). Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996. International Journal of Biometeorology, 44(2), 76-81.
  24. Menzel, A. & Fabian, P. (1999). Growing seasons extended in Europe, Nature 397.
  25. Mesbah, A., Miller, S. D., Fornstrom, K. J. & Legg, D. E. (1995). Wild mustard (Brassica kaber) and wild oat (Avena fatua) interference in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Weed Technology, 9, 49-52.
  26. Minbashi Moeini, M. (2008). Application of GIS in the management of weed wheat and rapeseed. Ph.D. thesis. University of Tehran.
  27. Minbashi Moeini, M., Rahimian, H., Baghestani, M. A., Alizadeh, H. M., Kheirkhah, M. M., Kakhki, Nazer, S. H. & Dieh-Ji, H. (2008). Using Phenology of Weeds in the Wheat Fields for Improvement Chemical Control and Reducing Herbicide Application. Environmental Science, 94-77.  
  28. Mickelson, J. A. & Grey, W. E. (2006). Effect of soil water content on wild oat (Avena fatua) seed mortality and seedling emergence. Weed Science, 52(2), 255-262.
  29. Mohamadzadeh, Z. (2011). Study of Genetic Diversity in Susceptible and Resistant Populations of Wild Oat to ACCase-Inhibitor Herbicides. Ph.D. thesis of Plant Systematic. Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Tehran.
  30. Montazeri, M., Zand, A. & Baghestanl, M. H. (2005). Weeds and their control in wheat fields of Iran. Plant Pest and Diseases Research Institute Press. 85pp.
  31. Morishita, D. W. & Thill, D. C. (1988). Factors of wild oat interference on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth and yield. Weed Science, 36(1), 37-42.
  32. Odum, E. P. (1971). Fundamentals of ecology, Edn. 3. Saunders, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 574 pp.
  33. Page, E. R., Gallagherb, R. S., Kemanianc, A. R., Zhangd, H. & Fuerste, E. P. (2006). Modeling site-specific wild oat (Avena fatua) emergence across a variable landscape. Weed Science, 54(5), 838- 846
  34. Pigliucci, M. & Marlow, E. T. (2001). Differentiation for floweringtime and phenotypic integration in Arabidopsis thaliana inresponse to season length and vernalization. Oecologia, 127(4), 501-508.
  35. Pour-Ali Moghanloo, H., Alizadeh H. & Oveis, M. (2013). Predicting Seedling Emergence of Hordeum spontanum: Do the Emerged Ecotypes from Different Climates in Iran Indicate Different Patterns of Emergence?. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 9, 15-26. (in Farsi)
  36. Probert, R. J. (1992). The role of temperature in germination ecophysiology. Fenner, M. (Ed.). Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities. Wallingford, CAB International. 285-325.
  37. Qiang, S. (2005). Multivariate analysis, description, and ecological interpretation of weed vegetation in the summer crop fields of Anhui province, China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 47(10), 1193-1210.
  38. Rashed Mohasel, M. H., Najafi, H. & Akbarzade, M. D. (2001). Weed Biology and management Book. Ferdowsi University.
  39. Sans, F. X. & Masalles, R. M. (1994). Life-history variation in the annual arable weed Diplotaxis erucoides (Cruciferae). Canadian Journal Botany, 72(1), 10-19.
  40. Schlichting, C. D. & Levin, D. A. (1986). Phenotypic plasticity: an evolving plant character. Biological Journal of Linnean Society, 29(1), 37-47.
  41. Schlichting, C. D. & Levin, D. A. (1990). Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. III. Variation among natural populations of P. drummondii. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 3(5-6), 411-428.
  42. Schlichting, C. D. (1986). The evolution of phenotypic plasticity inplants. Annuual Review Ecology Systytematic, 17, 667-693.
  43. Schmid, B. (1992). Phenotypic variation in plants. Evolution Trends Plant, 6(1), 45-60.
  44. Sexsmith, J. J. (1969). Dormancy of wild oat seed produced under various temperature and moisture conditions. Weed Science, 17(4), 405-407.
  45. Shirtliffe, S. J., Entz, M. H. & van acker, R. C. (2000). Avena fatua development and seed shatter as related to thermal time. Weed Science, 45(8), 555-560.
  46. Sultan, S. E. & Bazzaz, F. A. (1993). Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution, 47(4), 1009-1031.
  47. Sultan, S. E. (1987). Evolutionary implications of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Evolution Biology, 127-178.
  48. Ter Braak, C. & Milauer, P. (1998). CANOCO Reference manual and user’s guide to CANOCO for windows: Software for community ordination (version 4). Microcomputer Power (Italica, NY, USA). 352 pp.
  49. Thurston, J. M. & Phillipson, A. (1976). Distribution wild oats in world agriculture. London: Agricultural Research Council, 19-64.
  50. Wang, J. Y. (1960). A critique of the heat unit approach to plant response studies. Ecology, 41(4): 785-790.
  51. Weinig, C. (2000). Differing selection in alternative competitive environments: shade-avoidance responses and germination timing. Evolution, 54(1), 124-136.
  52. Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T. & Konzak, C. F. (1974). Decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research, 14, 415-421.
  53. Zand, E., Rahimian, H., Koocheki, A. R., Khalaghani, J., Moosavi, K. & Ramezani, K. (2004). Weed ecology (Translation). Jehade Daneshgahi of Mashhad Press.
  54. Zand, E., Bena Kashani, F., Baghestani, M.A., Maknali, A., Minbashi, M. & Soufizadeh, S. (2006b). Investigating the distribution of resistant wold oat (Avena ludoviciana) populations to clodinafop-propargil herbicide in South Western Iran. Environmental Sciences, 4, 85-92.
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
December 2017
Pages 601-613
  • Receive Date: 10 September 2016
  • Revise Date: 18 December 2016
  • Accept Date: 22 January 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2017