Study of Energy Flow and Emission of Greenhouse Gases in Wheat and Barley Ecosystems: A Case Study of Tehran Province

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Agroecology, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Maragheh, Iran.

3 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity of energy input, compare the energy flow and the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions between wheat and barley ecosystems, in the cities of Tehran province. The information needed collected by questionnaire method from farmers in Tehran province cities. Then, energy indices, different forms of energy and global warming potential were calculated. The results showed that, the highest input energy in the production process of wheat and barley belonged to Islamshahr city with 86159 and 76793.9 MJ ha- 1 respectively. Also, the most direct energy, renewable energy and non-renewable energy belonged to wheat and barley farms in Islamshahr and Rabat Karim cities. Wheat farms in Tehran had the most indirect energy. On the other hand, the lowest quantity of different forms of energy in the wheat and barley ecosystems belonged to the rainfed farms of Tehran province located in cold regions. In general, in wheat and barley ecosystems of Tehran province, the share of direct energy is more than indirect energy and the share of non-renewable energy is more than renewable energy. The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions in wheat and barley farms in the western cities of the province, including Islamshahr equivalent to 10474.5 and 10081 kg eq. CO2 per ha respectively. Therefore, by taking into account the climatic conditions of the region and managing the consumption of production inputs, it is possible to increase the efficiency of energy consumption and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in Tehran province.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 13 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 04 November 2023
  • Revise Date: 31 December 2023
  • Accept Date: 06 January 2024
  • Publish Date: 13 April 2024