The ecology of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.) seed germination

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc Graduate, University of Tehran

2 University of Tehran


Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a noxious weed and one of the most problematic weeds in field crops, orchards, vegetables, pastures and grasslands in Iran. Determining the ecological factors of this grass weed will contribute to development of its control programs. In order to study germination characteristics to water and salinity stress conditions at different temperatures, an experiment was conducted. Temperatures regimes included 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. For each temperature the treatment, for salinity and water stress was 4 potentials (zero, -4, -8, and -12 bar) of NaCl and 4 potentials (zero, -4, -8, and -12 bar) of PEG. Results showed that increasing salinity stress decreased significantly germination rate and percentage. Tb germination was increased from 11°C to 22°C in -12 salinity potential and Tc decreased from 42°C to 33°C. Result showed that seed germination under drought was more sensitive, so that germination percentage at -8 bar was zero.  Obtained germination data for high salinity and drought clearly showed that the permissive temperature range for germination was limited.


Main Subjects

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Volume 50, Issue 3
November 2019
Pages 17-30
  • Receive Date: 25 June 2017
  • Revise Date: 24 June 2018
  • Accept Date: 21 August 2018
  • Publish Date: 23 October 2019