Elements concentration, seed and essential oil yield of Thorn apple (Datura stramonium L.) under direct, cumulative and residual effects of organic and conventional agricultural systems

Document Type : Research Paper


1 university of zabol- student

2 Member of science at zabol university

3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol


In order to replace the chemical inputs with ecological compatible inputs, an experiment was conducted on split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, at the Research Station of Bayakola during two years (2016 and 2017). Experimental treatments were plant nutrition with NPK, animal manure, compost, vermicompost and control (no chemical and organic fertilizer) as main plot and biophosphate, nitroxin, nitroxin + bio-phosphate, nano biumik and control (no bio and nano bio-fertilizer) as subplot. Interactions of organic and inorganic, bio and nano bio-fertilizer treatments and nutritional systems (direct, cumulative and residual) on all studied traits were significant (P≤0.01). In all three nutritional systems the highest amounts of leaf and grain nitrogen concentration, copper, manganese, zinc, iron and calcium elements concentration of leaves, leaves dry weight, grain yield and essential oil perecentage and yield, were obtained in vermicompost in combination with nano biumik fertilizers, the highest amounts of leaf and grain phosphorus and potassium concentration were obtained from combining animal manure with nano biumik fertilizers and the maximum amount of leaf magnesium was obtained from the combination of compost and nano biumik treatments. There was no significant difference between fertilization systemes. Therefore, with respect to the production of medicinal plants in the low-input cropping systems, using a load of combinations of organic (especially vermicompost) and nano biumik fertilizers for two consecutive years are recommended for improving elements concentration, seed yield and essential oil percentage and yield of datura.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdel-Aziz, M., Pokluda, R. & Abdel-Wahab, M. (2007). Influence of compost, microorganisms and NPK fertilizer upon growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 35(1), 86-90.
  2. Ahmadinezhad, R. (2012). Integrated effect of organic fertilizers and nitrogen on nutrition, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Alvand). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Iran. 121p.
  3. Anwar, M., Patra, D. D., Chand, S. & Khanuja, S. P. S. (2005). Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36 (13-14), 1737-1746.
  4. Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. & Metzeger, J. D. (2004). Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technology, 93, 145-153.
  5. Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Lee, S. & Byrne, R. (2006). Effects of humic acids from vermicomposts on plant growth. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, 65-69.
  6. Asadi, G. H., Momen, A., Khorramdel, S. & Nurzadeh Nameghi, A. (2014). Effect of different levels of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and nitrogen efficiency indices in (Plantago ovata Forsk.). Journal of Agroecology, 5(4), 373-382. (In Farsi)
  7. Azizi, M., Rezwanee, F., Hassanzadeh Khayat, M., Lackzian, A. & Neamati, H. (2008). The effect of different levels of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological properties and essential oil content of german chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) C.V. Goral. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24(1), 82-93. (In Farsi)
  8. Badr, M. A. (2006). Efficiency of K-feldspar combined with organic materials and silicate dissolving bacteria on tomato yield. Journal and Applied Sciences Research, 2, 1191-1198.
  9. Banchio, E., Xie, X., Zhang, H. & Pare, P. W. (2009). Soil bacteria elevate essential oil accumulation and emissions in sweet basil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 653-657.

10. Bhattacharyya, P., Chakrabarti, K., Chakraborty, A., Nayak, D. C., Tripathy, S. & Powell, M. A. (2007). Municipal waste compost as an alternative to cattle manure for supplying potassium to lowland rice. Chemosphere, 66, 1789-1793.

11. Brussard, L. & Ferrera-Cenato, R. (1997). Soil Ecology in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. New York: Lewis publishers, USA. 168p.

12. Chapman, H. D. & Pratt, P. F. (1961). Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants, and Waters. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Berkeley, California, USA. 309p.

13. Darzi, M. T., Hadjseyed Hadi, M. R. & Atarpoor, R. (2016). Effects of different manure and vermicompost rates on yield and essential oil contents of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science, 46(4), 4711-721. (In Farsi)

14. Darzi, M. T., Hadjseyed Hadi M. R. & Rejali, F. (2011). Effects of vermicompost and phosphate biofertilizer application on yield and yield components in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(4), 452-465. (In Farsi)

15. Demir, S. (2004). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on some physiological growth parameters of pepper. Turkish Journal of Biology, 28, 85-90.

16. Earnapalli, V. N. (2005). Screening of antagonistic microorganisms for biological control of early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani. MSc. Thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, India.

17. Eghball, B., Ginting, D. & Gilley, J. E. (2004). Residual effects of manure and compost applications on corn production and soil properties. Agronomy Journal, 96, 442-7.

18. Fernandez-Luqueno, F., Reyes-Varela, V., Martinez-Suarez, C., Salomon-Hernandez, G., Yanez-Meneses, J., Ceballos-Ramerez, J. M. & Dendooven, L. (2010). Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bioresource Technology, 101, 396-403.

19. Gaire, B. P. & Subedi, L. (2013). A review on the pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Datura stramonium L. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 11(2), 73-79.

20. Gharib, F. A., Moussa, L. A., & Massoud, O. N. (2008). Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Marjorana hortensis L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science, 10, 381-387.

21. Gunes, A., Ataoğlu, N., Turan, M., Esitken, A. & Ketterings, Q. M. (2009). Effects of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms on strawberry yield and nutrient concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 172, 385-392.

22. Han, H. S. & Lee, K. D. (2006). Effect of inoculation with phosphate and potassium co-in solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52, 130-136.

23. Hay, R. K. M. & Walker, A. J. (1989). An Introduction to the Physiology of Crop Yield. Longman Scientific and Technical. 292p.

24. Hellal, F. A., Zewainy, R. M., Khalil, A. A. & Ragab, A. A. M. (2014). Effect of organic and bio-fertilizer management practices on nutrient availability and uptake by faba bean- maize sequence. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 8 (5), 35-42.

25. Hemantaranjan, A. & Garge, O. K. (1998). Iron and zinc fertilization with reference to the grain quality of Triticum sativum L. Plant Nutrition, 11, 1439-1450.

26. Hossaini, S. M., Aghaalikhani, M., Sefidkon, F. & Ghalavand, A. (2015). Vegetative and essential oil yields of savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm.) affected by vermicompost and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexux L.) competition. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31, 342-356. (In Farsi)

27. Hosseinzadeh, S. R., Amiri, H. & Ismaili, A. (2016). Effect of vermicompost fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress. Photosynthetica, 54(1), 87-92.

28. Jahan, M., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Amiri, M. B. & Ehyayi, H. R. (2013). Radiation absorption and use efficiency of sesame as affected by biofertilizers inoculation in a low input cropping system. Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 606- 611.

29. Jackson, M. L. (1973) Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 498p.

30. Karthikeyan, B., Abdul Jaleel, C., Lakshmanan, G. M. A. & Deiveekasundaram, M. (2008). Studies on rhizosphere microbial diversity of some commercially important medicinal plants. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 62(1), 143-145.

31. Khalesro, Sh., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F. & Asgharzadeh, A. (2012). The effect of biological and organic inputs on quantity and quality of essential oil and some elements content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(4), 551-560. (In Farsi)

32. Khalid, A. K., Hendawy, S. F. & El-Gezawy, E. (2006). Ocimum basilicum L., production under organic farming. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2(1), 25-33.

33. Khan, R., Gurmani, A. R., Khan, M. S. & Gurmani, A. H. (2009). Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat system. Soil and Environment, 28, 24-28.

34. Kumar, V. & Singh, K. P. (2001). Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresour Technology, 76(2), 173-175.

35. Leithy, S., El-Meseiry, T. A. & Abdallah, E. F. (2006). Effect of bio-fertilizer, cell stabilizer and irrigation regime on rosemary herbage oil yield and quality. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(10), 773-779.

36. Mahfouz, S. A. & Sharaf-Eldin, M. A. (2007). Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics, 21(4), 361-366.

37. Mafakheri, S., Omidbaigi, R., Sefidkon, F. & Rejali, F. (2012). Effect of vermicompost, biophosphate and azotobacter on quantity and quality of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(4), 590-605. (In Persian with English Abstract)

38. Manivannan, S., Balamurugan, M., Parthasarathi, K., Gunasekaran, G., & Ranganathan, L.S. (2009). Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity-beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Environmental Biology, 30, 275-281.

39. Migahed, H. A., Ahmed, A. E. & Abd El-Ghany, B. F. (2004). Effect of different bacterial strains as biofertilizer agents on growth, production and oil of Apium graveolense under Calcareous soil. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 12, 511-525.

40. Mirzashahi, K. & Kiani, Sh. (2009). The effect of sheep manure compost on application rate of chemical fertilizers in grain corn planting. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 4(2), 174-186. (In Farsi)

41. Mohammadi, S., Kalbasi, M. & Shariatmadari, H. (2009). Cumulative and residual effects of organic fertilizer application on selected soil properties, water soluble P, olsen-p and P sorption index. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 11, 487-497.

42. Mohammadpour Vashvaei, R. Ghanbari, A. & Fakheri, B. A. (2017a). Effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different rates of chemical fertilizers on the growth characters and sepals yield of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Agroecology, 9(2), 276-295. (In Farsi)

43. Mohammadpour Vashvaei, R. Ghanbari, A. & Fakheri, B. A. (2017b). Effect of different fertilization systems (chemical, biological and integrated) on nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, biochemical attributes and sepals dry weight of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Agroecology, 9(3), 652-674. (In Farsi)

44. Mohammadpour Vashvaei, R. Ghanbari, A. & Fakheri, B. A. (2015). Effect of combined feeding system on N, P and K concentration, biochemical characteristics and calyxes yield of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 46(3), 497-517. (In Farsi)

45. Mona, Y., Kandil, A.M. & Swaefy Hend, M. F. (2008). Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and salvia growth character and their essential oils. Biological Sciences, 4, 34-39.

46. Moradi, R., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Lakzian, A. & Nejadali, A. (2011). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Horticultural Science, 25(1), 25-33. (In Farsi)

47. Mowaghatian, A., Fateh, E., Aynehband, A. & Siahpoosh, A. (2014). Investigation of integrated mineral nutrient management on yield and yield components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of The Plant Production (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 37(2), 113-126. (In Farsi)

48. Najafi, N., Mardomi, S. & Oustan, S. (2012). Influence of waterlogging, sewage sludge and manure on the heavy metals concentrations in roots and shoots of sunflower in a loamy sand soil. Journal of Science and Technology Agriculture and Natural Resources-Water and Soil, 15(58), 139-157. (In Farsi)

49. Najafi, N., Mardomi, S. & Oustan, S. (2013). The effect of waterlogging sewage sludge and manure on selected macronutrients and sodium uptake by sunflower plant in a loamy sand soil. Journal of Water and Soil, 26(3), 619-636. (In Farsi)

50. Naiji, M. & Souri, M. K. (2015). Evaluation of growth and yield of Savory (Satureja hortensis) under organic and biological fertilizers toward organic production. Plant Protection journal, 38(3), 93-103.

51. Nassar, R. M. A., Boghdady, M. S. & Selim, D. A. (2015). Effect of mineral and bio-fertilizers on vegetative growth, mineral status, seed yield, tropane alkaloids and leaf anatomy of thorn apple plant (Datura stramonium L.). Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 4(4), 754-768.

52. Nelson, D. W. & Sommers, L. E. (1972). Determination of total nitrogen in plant material. Agronomy Journal, 65, 109-111.

53. Ordookhani, K., Khavazi, K., Moezzi, A. & Rejali, F. (2010). Influence of PGPR and AMF on antioxidant activity, lycopene and potassium contents in tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(10), 1108-1116.

54. Prajapati, K. B. & Modi, H. A. (2012). Isolation and characterition of potassium solubilizing bacteria from ceramic industry soil. Journal of Microbiology, 1(2-3), 8-14.

55. Ranjbar, M., & Shams, Gh. A. (2009). Using of nano technology. Ecological Green Journal, 3, 29-34.

56. Rasouli, F. & Maftoon, M. (2010). Residual effect of organic matter with or without nitrogen on the growth and chemical composition of wheat and some soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Soil, 24(2), 262-273. (In Farsi)

57. Ratti, N., Kumar, S., Verma, H. N. & Gautam, S. P. (2001). Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martini var. motia by rhizobecteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation. Microbiology Research, 156, 145-149.

58. Razavi Nia, M., Aghaalikhani, M. & Naghdi Badi, H. (2015). Effect of vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative properties of Echinaceae pursuerea (L.) Moench. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(2), 357-373. (In Farsi)

59. Rezaenejad, Y. & Afyuni, M. (2001). Effect of organic matter on soil chemical properties and corn yield and elemental uptake. Journal of Science and Technology Agriculture and Natural Resources, 4(4), 19-29. (In Farsi)

60. Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Aminghafori, A., Bakhshes, S. & Jafari, L. (2013). The effect of organic and biofertilizers on some quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Journal of Agroecology, 5, 105-112. (In Farsi)

61. Roppongi, K. (1993). Residual effects of rice straw compost after continuous application to upland alluvial soil. Japanese Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 64, 417-422.

62. Salehi, A., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F. & Asgharzade, A. (2011). The effect of zeolite, PGPR and vermicompost application on N, P, K concentration, essential oil content and yield in organic cultivation of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(2), 188-201. (In Farsi)

63. Sangwan, N. S., Farooqi, A. H. A., Shabih, F. & Sangwan, R. S. (2001). Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regulation, 34, 3-21.

64. SAS Institute. (2013). The SAS system for Windows. Release 9.2. SAS Institute. Cary, NC.

65. Saydi, Z., Fateh, E. & Aynehband, A. (2017). Effect of different sources of nitrogen and organic fertilizers on yield and yield components of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Agroecology, 9(1), 115-128. (In Farsi)

66. Sayyed, A. & Shah, M. (2014). Phytochemistry, pharmacological and traditional uses of Datura stramonium L.: review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(5), 123-125.

67. Shahzad, S. M., Khalid, A., Arif, M. S., Riaz, M., Ashraf, M., Iqbal, Z. & Yasmeen, T. (2014). Co-inoculation integrated with P-enriched compost improved nodulation and growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under irrigated and rainfed farming systems. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 50(1), 1-12.

68. Sharma A. K. (2002). A Handbook of Organic Farming. Agrobios, India. 627p.

69. Sharma, S., Pradhan, K., Satya, S. & Vasudevan, P. (2005). Potentiality of earthworms for waste management and in other uses: a review. The Journal of American Science, 1, 4-16.

70. Singh, M. V. & Abrol, I. P. (1985). Direct and residual effect of fertilizer zinc application on the yield and chemical composition of rice-wheat crops in an alkali soil. Fertilizer Research, 8, 179-191.

71. Subramanian, K. S., Manikandan, A., Thirunavukkarasu, M. & Sharmila Rahale, C. (2015). Nano-fertilizers for balanced crop nutrition. In: Rai, M., Ribeiro, C., Mattoso, L. & Duran, N. (Eds.). Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland. pp, 69-80.

72. Vildova, A., Stolcova, M. & Kloucek Orsak, P. M. (2006). Quality characterization of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in organic and traditional agricultures. International Symposium on Chamomile Research, Development and Production. Presov, p, 81-82.

73. Youssef, A. A., Edris, A. E. & Gomaa, A. M. (2004). A comparative study between some plant growth regulators and certain growth hormones producing microorganisms on growth and essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. Plant Annals of Agricultural Science, 49, 299-311.

Volume 50, Issue 2
July 2019
Pages 159-180
  • Receive Date: 10 March 2018
  • Revise Date: 26 May 2018
  • Accept Date: 29 September 2018
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2019