Different levels of biochar and irrigation influence on faba bean growth, yield and yield components

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Water Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Soil Science Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Effect of four levels of biochar (0, 25, 50 and 75 ton ha-1) produced from wheat straw and three levels of irrigation (100, 75 and 50 % of crop water requirement) on growth and yield of faba bean was determined in completely randomized design in the greenhouse. The result showed that after faba bean reached maturity, the maximum plant height and leaf area index obtained in 25 ton ha-1 biochar treatment. Also, maximum faba bean yield was also obtained in 25 ton ha-1 biochar. The result of irrigation regimes treatments showed that the crop height and leaf area index decreased by application of deficit irrigation. Faba bean growth and yield were also significantly declined under deficit irrigation. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of biochar (as a soil amendment) in low levels may have a positive effect on crop yield and its components. Further, under biochar application of 25 ton ha-1, the use of deficit irrigation in 75% of crop water requirement is recommended as it did not cause any significant decline in crop yield.


Main Subjects

  1. Akhtar, S.S., Andersen, M.N. & Liu, F.L. (2015). Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 201, 368-378.
  2. Alburquerque, J. A., Salazar, P., Barrón, V., Torrent, J., del Campillo, M. D. C., Gallardo, A. & Villar, R. (2013). Enhanced wheat yield by biochar addition under different mineral fertilization levels. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33, 475-484.
  3. Arabzadeh, S., Shamsaldini, N., Abdollahi, A. & Karminejad Asl, F. (2013). Advantages of compost and vermicompost. In: Proceeding of 2nd National Congress on Sustainable Agricultural Development and Healthy Environment, 12 Sep. Hamedan Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran, pp. 1-8.
  4. Arif, M., Ali, A., Umair, M., Munsif, F., Ali, K., Inamullah, M. S. & Ayub, G. (2012). Effect of biochar FYM and mineral nitrogen alone and in combination on yield and yield components of maize. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 28, 191-195.
  5. Chaudhry, U.K., Shahzad, S., Naqqash, M.N., Saboor, A., Yaqoob, S., Salim, M. & Khalid, M. (2016).  Integration of biochar and chemical fertilizer to enhance quality of soil and wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.). Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  6. Curaqueo, G., Meier, S., Khan, N., Cea, M. & Navia, R. (2014). Use of biochar on two volcanic soils: effects on soil properties and barley yield. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 14, 911-924.
  7. Diepenbrock, W. (2000). Yield analysis of winter oilseed rape. Field Crops Research, 67, 35-49.
  8. Downie, A., Crosky, A. & Munroe, P. (2009). Physical properties of biochar. In: J. Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. (pp. 13-32.) Earthscan.
  9. Fardad, H. & Golkar, H. (2002). An economic evaluation of deficit irrigation on wheat yield in Karaj. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 33, 305- 312. (In Farsi)

10. Gavili, E., Mousavi, A.A. & Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A. (2016). Effect of cattle manure biochar and drought stress on the growth characteristics and water use efficiency of Spinach under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 30.2, 243-259. (In Farsi)

11. Glaser, B. & Birk, J. J. (2012). State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Índio). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 82, 39-51.

12. Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. & Zech, W. (2002). Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal–a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35, 219-230.

13. Hasanvand, H., Siadat, S.A., Moraditelavat, M.R., Mussavi, S.H. & Karaminejad, A. (2015). Yield and some morphological characteristics of two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars to different sowing dates in Ahwaz region. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 25, 79-89. (In Farsi)

14. Ippolito, J. A., Novak, J. M., Busscher, W. J., Ahmedna, M., Rehrah, D. & Watts, D. W. (2012). Switch grass biochar affects two Arid soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41, 1123-1130.

15. Kamara, A., Kamara, H.S. & Kamara, M.S. (2015). Effect of Rice Straw Biochar on Soil Quality and the Early Growth and Biomass Yield of Two Rice Varieties. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 798-806.

16. Kammann, C. I., Linsel, S., Gößling, J. W. & Koyro, H. W. (2011). Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Wild and on soil–plant relations. Plant and Soil, 345, 195-210.

17. Katterer, T. (2012). Effects of applying biochar to soils from Embu, Kenya – Effects on crop residue decomposition and soil fertility under varying soil moisture levels. Bachelor Project. Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

18. Lack, S.h., Naderi, A. Saidat, A., Ayenehband, A., Nour-Mohammadi, G.H. & Moosavi, S.h. (2008). The effects of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen and plant population on yield, yield components and dry matter remobilization of corn at climatical conditions of Khuzestan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 11, 1-14. (In Farsi)

19. Lawlor, D. W. & Cornic, G. (2002). Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 275-294.

20. Levitt, J. (1980). Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses: Water, radiation, salt, and other stresses (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

21. Mary, B., Recous, S., Darwis, D. & Robin, D. (1996). Interactions between decomposition of plant residues and nitrogen cycling in soil. Plant and Soil, 181, 71-82.

22. Mirzaei, R., Kambozia, J., Sahabi, H. & Mahdavi, A. (2009). Effect of different organic fertilizers on soil physicochemical properties, production and biomass yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7, 257-268. (In Farsi)

23. Pannu, R. K. & Singh, D. P. (1993). Effect of irrigation on water use, water-use efficiency, growth and yield of mungbean. Field Crops Research, 31, 87-100.

24. Pookpakdi, A., Thiravirojana, K., Saeradee, I. & Chaikaew, S. (1990). Response of new soybean accessions to water stress during reproductive phase. Kasetsart Journal, Natural Sciences, 24, 378-387.

25. Peake, L. (2015). Biochar amendment to improve soil productivity with particular emphasis on the influence of soil type. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Science University of East Anglia, England.

26. Smider, B. & Singh, B. (2014). Agronomic performance of a high ash biochar in two contrasting soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 191, 99-107.

27. Suppadit, T., Phumkokrak, N. & Poungsuk, P. (2012). The effect of using quail litter biochar on soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72, 244-250.

28. Tate, R. L. (2000). Soil Microbiology (2nded.). John Wily and Sons Inc.

29. Tesfaye, K., Walker, S. & Tsubo, M. (2006). Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of three grain legumes under water deficit conditions in a semi-arid environment. European Journal of Agronomy, 25, 60-70.

30. Vaccari, F. P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F. & Miglietta, F. (2011). Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 34, 231-238.

Volume 50, Issue 2
July 2019
Pages 89-99
  • Receive Date: 18 November 2017
  • Revise Date: 07 July 2018
  • Accept Date: 21 July 2018
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2019