Resistance to pre-harvest seed sprouting in different cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Guilan

2 Rasht

3 Research Institute of Rice


In order to evaluate and identify theresistant cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to pre-harvest sprouting, this study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a personal farm located at the lalevajesar village, Bandar Kiashahr, Guilan province, Iran in2014. Twenty cultivarswere investigated including 16 local cultivars and 4 improved cultivars. Heading date, flowering date and seedling growth stage of Zadoks92 were recorded on the field. The spikes were harvested at Zadoksstage 92 and the seeds moisture content was measured immediately after harvesting.Two methods were used to evaluate pre-harvest sprouting including sprouting score and sprouting index under laboratory condition. The studied traits were as follows: seed dormancy, after ripening period, α-amylase activity and embryo protein levels under laboratory conditions. In both methods, high resistance to sprouting on the spike was observed in cultivars with high levels of seed dormancy.Significant differencesamong studied cultivars were observed forphenological, physiologicalandbiochemical characteristics of rice grain.Meanwhile, there were significant positive correlations between sprouting score, and sprouting index with α-amylase activity, there were significant negative correlationbetween these two traits with seed dormancy index (dormancy severity) and after-ripening regression coefficient (dormancyduration). Significant differencesfor protein content ofseed embryo between dormant and non-dormant seeds inthe earliest stages ofwater absorption under heattreatments were determined. Cultivars classified into three groups based on cluster analysis. Our findings provide further evidence of appropriate genetic diversity among cultivars in the case ofstudied traits that underscore the importance to use in breeding programs for resistance to pre-harvestsprouting.


Main Subjects

  1. Agahi K., Fotokian M. H. & Younesi Z. (2012). Study of genetic diversity and important correlations of agronomic traits in rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.). Iranian Journal Of Biology, 25(1): 97-110.
  2. Arumugam, M., & Rajanna, M. (2008). Seed dormancy and seedling vigour as influenced by planting time environment and date of harvest in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 6(1): 1-9.
  3. Bainotti, C., Cuniberti, M., Masiero, B., Donaire, G., Gómez, D., Reartes, F., Salines, J., Formica, M., Fraschina, J., & Nisi, J. (2009). Characterization of wheat cultivars for pre-harvest sprouting. Agriscientia, 26(1): 29-33.
  4. Bewley, J. D., Bradford, K., & Hilhorst, H. (2012). Seeds: physiology of development, germination and dormancy. Springer Science & Business Media.
  5. Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical biochemistry, 72(1-2): 248-254.
  6. Clarke, J. M., DePauw, R. M., Mcleod, J. G., & McCraig, T. N. (1994). Variation for preharvest sprouting resistance in durum wheat. Crop science, 34(6): 1632-1635.
  7. DePauw, R., Knox, R., Singh, A., Fox, S., Humphreys, D., & Hucl, P. (2012). Developing standardized methods for breeding preharvest sprouting resistant wheat, challenges and successes in Canadian wheat. Euphytica, 188(1): 7-14.
  8. Etezadijam, J., Tavakol Afshari, R., Yazdi Samadi. B. & Hosseinzadeh, A. (2005a). Evaluation of resistance to germination before harvesting and studying correlation and causality analysis and seed traits with bread wheat. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 36 (3): 742-733. (In Farsi)
  9. Etezadijam, J., Tavakolafshari, R., Yazdisamadi, B. & Shahnejatboshehri, A. A. (2005b). Seed dormancy study, after-ripening period and patterns of protein synthesis in embryos of dormant and non-dormant seeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 36 (4): 867-859. (In Farsi)

10. FAO. (2011).

11. Gao, X., Hu, C., Li, H., Yao, Y., Meng, M., Dong, J., Zhao, W., Chen, Q., & Li, X. (2013). Factors affecting pre-harvest sprouting resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a review. J. Anim. Plant Sci, 23: 556-565.

12. Gómez-Cadenas, A., Zentella, R., Walker-Simmons, M. K., & Ho, T.-H. D. (2001). Gibberellin/abscisic acid antagonism in barley aleurone cells: site of action of the protein kinase PKABA1 in relation to gibberellin signaling molecules. The Plant Cell, 13(3); 667-679.

13. He, D., Han, C., Yao, J., Shen, S., & Yang, P. (2011). Constructing the metabolic and regulatory pathways in germinating rice seeds through proteomic approach. Proteomics, 11(13): 2693-2713.

14. Hilhorst, H. W. (2007). Definitions and hypotheses of seed dormancy. Annual Plant Reviews: Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination, 27: 50-71.

15. Huang, X. Q., & Brûlé-Babel, A. (2012). Sequence diversity, haplotype analysis, association mapping and functional marker development in the waxy and starch synthase IIa genes for grain-yield-related traits in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Molecular breeding, 30(2): 627-645.

16. Hucl, P. (1995). Divergent selection for sprouting resistance in spring wheat. Plant breeding, 114(3): 199-204.

17. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). (2008). Handbook of Vigor test methods,2nd ed. International Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland.

18. Kashem, M., Sultana, N., Samanta, S., & Kamal, A. (1995). Starch, sugar, amylase and invertase activity in the germinating seeds of modern wheat varieties. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 23(2).

19. Leubner-Metzger, G. (2003). Functions and regulation of β-1, 3-glucanases during seed germination, dormancy release and after-ripening. Seed Science Research, 13(1): 17-34.

20. Liu, S., Sehgal, S. K., Li, J., Lin, M., Trick, H. N., Yu, J., Gill, B. S., & Bai, G. (2013). Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for preharvest sprouting in wheat. Genetics, 195(1): 263-273.

21. Mamaghani, F., Afshari, R., & Sharifzadeh, F. (2009). A study of seed dormancy and dormancy breaking factors during after-ripening period of barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 40(3): 123-135.

22. Mamaghani, F., & Tavakkol-Afshari, R. (2009). A study of seed dormancy, period of after-ripening, and pre-harvest sprouting resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 40(1).

23. Mew, T. W., & Misra, J. (1994). A manual of rice seed health testing: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

24. Mitra S., Ghosh B. & Sircar S. M. (1976). Physiological changes in rice seed during the early stage of germination. Indian Jourml ofAgricultura1 Sciences 63(7): 426-428.

25. Muharrami, A., Shahedi, M. And Kadivar, M. (2009). Investigating the Activity of Alpha Amylase, Lipase and Lipoxygenase in Wheat and Their Change in Activity Before and After the Germination Period, Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13 (47): 13 -1. (In Farsi)

26. Muralikrishna, G., & Nirmala, M. (2005). Cereal α-amylases—an overview. Carbohydrate polymers, 60(2); 163-173.

27. Nouri nia, A.A. (2002), Pre-harvest germination, Past research and future needs. In: 7th Iranian Congress of Plant Breeding. Karaj, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute, 15. (In Farsi)

28. Ren, G., Gao, F., Lu, X., Li, Z., Liu, G., Sun, S., & Li, H. (2009). Development of high-quality cytoplasmic male sterile rice lines. The responsibility for this publication rests with the International Rice Research Insti-tute. Copyright International Rice Research Institute 2009 This publication is copyrighted by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0, 117.

29. Roozeboom, K. L., McCluskey, P. J., Shroyer, J. P., & Paulsen, G. M. (1997). Preharvest sprouting of hard red and hard white wheats in Kansas. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports (12); 100.

30. Sadeghi, M., Esfahani, M., Momeni, A., Rabiei, M & Jahandideh, H. (2008). Effect of Seed Moisture Content on Seed Germination Index and Seedling Growth in Four Rapeseed Cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 15 (3): 65. (In Farsi)

31. Sasaki, K., Kazama, Y., Youn, C., & Tadashi, S. (2013). Confirmation of novel quantitative trait loci for seed dormancy at different ripening stages in rice. Rice Science, 20(3): 207-212.

32. Schuurink, R., Beckum, J. V., & Heidekamp, F. (1992). Modulation of grain dormancy in barley by variation of plant growth conditions. Hereditas, 117(2): 137-143.

33. Simsek, S., Ohm, J. B., Lu, H., Rugg, M., Berzonsky, W., Alamri, M. S., & Mergoum, M. (2014). Effect of pre‐harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(2): 205-212.

34. Strand, E. (1980). A seed dormancy index for selection of cultivars of cereals resistant to pre-harvest sprouting. Cereal Research Communications, 219-223.

35. Tavakkol-Afshari, R., & Hucl, P. (2002). Variation of seed dormancy and after-ripening in tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum, T. turgidum, T. turanicum, T. carthlicum, T. polonicum). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 4; 23-36.

36. Tavakol Afshari, R., & B. Yazdi Samadi. (2000). Evaluation of two screening methods for preharvest sprouting methods, Academy of Science, Islamic Republic of Iran, 371-381.

37. Tavakol Afshari, R., & Yazdi Samadi, B. (2002). Evaluation of two screening methods for study of resistance to germination before harvest to reduce waste production in bread wheat, prevention of loss of bread and other foods, pp. 331 -321.

38. Wan, J., Jiang, L., Tang, J., Wang, C., Hou, M., Jing, W., & Zhang, L. (2006). Genetic dissection of the seed dormancy trait in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant science, 170(4): 786-792.

39. Wu, T., Yang, C., Ding, B., Feng, Z., Wang, Q., He, J., Tong, J., Xiao, L., Jiang, L., & Wan, J. (2016). Microarray-based gene expression analysis of strong seed dormancy in rice cv. N22 and less dormant mutant derivatives. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 99: 27-38.

40. Xie, Z., Zhang, Z.-L., Hanzlik, S., Cook, E., & Shen, Q. J. (2007). Salicylic acid inhibits gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase expression and seed germination via a pathway involving an abscisic-acid-inducible WRKY gene. Plant molecular biology, 64(3): 293-303.

41. Yang, P., Li, X., Wang, X., Chen, H., Chen, F., & Shen, S. (2007). Proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds during germination. Proteomics, 7(18): 3358-3368.

42. Yuan, Y., Chen, X., Xiao, S., & Zhang, W. (2005). Extraction and identification of barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor. Journal of Triticeae Crops, 25(1): 40-43.

Volume 49, Issue 3
November 2018
Pages 185-201
  • Receive Date: 15 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 23 September 2018
  • Accept Date: 23 September 2018
  • Publish Date: 22 November 2018